Targeted temperature sensitive magnetic liposomes for thermo-chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT We describe folate receptor targeted thermosensitive magnetic liposomes, which are designed to combine features of biological and physical (magnetic) drug targeting for use in magnetic hyperthermia-triggered drug release. The optimized liposome formulation DPPC:cholesterol:DSPE-PEG(2000):DSPE-PEG(2000)-Folate at 80:20:4.5:0.5 molar ratio showed calcein release of about 70% both in PBS and in 50% FBS (fetal bovine serum) at 43 degrees C and less than 5% release at 37 degrees C following 1h incubation. Folate-targeted doxorubicin-containing magnetic liposomes of the above lipid composition (MagFolDox) showed encapsulation efficiencies of about 85% and 24% for doxorubicin and magnetic nanoparticles (mean crystallite size 10nm), respectively. This magnetic formulation displayed the desired temperature sensitivity with 52% doxorubicin release in 50% fetal bovine serum (FBS) following 1h incubation at 43 degrees C. MagFolDox, when physically targeted to tumor cells in culture by a permanent magnetic field yielded a substantial increase in cellular uptake of doxorubicin as compared to Caelyx (a commercially available liposomal doxorubicin preparation), non-magnetic folate-targeted liposomes (FolDox) and free doxorubicin in folate receptor expressing tumor cell lines (KB and HeLa cells). This resulted in a parallel increase in cytotoxicity over Caelyx and FolDox. Magnetic hyperthermia at 42.5 degrees C and 43.5 degrees C synergistically increased the cytotoxicity of MagFolDox. The results suggest that an integrated concept of biological and physical drug targeting, triggered drug release and hyperthermia based on magnetic field influence can be used advantageously for thermo-chemotherapy of cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose. Dextran magnetite (DM)-incorporated thermosensitive liposomes, namely thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs), were prepared and characterized in order to investigate their possibility for magnetic drug targeting. Methods. TMs containing calcein were prepared at various DM concentrations by reverse-phase evaporation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). They were evaluated for their physicochemical properties including size, DM capture, magnetite distribution within liposomes, and temperature-dependent calcein release. Moreover, a novel on-line flow apparatus with a sample injector, a coil of tubing placed in an electromagnet, and a fluorescence detector was developed for quantifying the magnetic responsiveness of TMs. This device allowed us a real-time measurement of percentage holding of TMs by magnetic field. Results. Due to water-soluble property of DM, higher contents of magnetite up to 490 mg per mmol DPPC were successfully incorporated into the liposomes with DM than with conventional magnetite (Fe3O4). Thermosensitivity and lipid integrity of TMs were not influenced by inclusion of DM. Using the on-line flow system, percentage holding of TMs by magnetic field was shown to vary with several factors; it increases as the magnetic field strength increases, the fluid flow rate decreases, the magnetite content increases, and the liposome concentration increases. Typically, at 490 mg incorporated magnetite per mmol DPPC, 0.5 ml/min-fluid flow rate, and high magnetic field strength (10 kiloGauss), approximately 100% of TMs were found to be held. Conclusions. The TMs were suggested to be useful in future cancer treatment by magnetic targeting combined with drug release in response to hyperthermia.Pharmaceutical Research 01/1995; 12(8):1176-1183. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is a popular treatment approach against cancer but significant uptake of drugs by normal tissues is still a major limitation. Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) has been used to improve localized drug delivery to interstitial tumor targets. MDT is now being developed to improve drug delivery to tumor vessels. We thus seek to understand the role of magnetite (MAG-C) in drug loading, influence on cytotoxicity and vascular targeting characteristics. The inclusion of MAG-C at lower concentrations (0.5 mg/ml) in cationic liposomes did not alter the efficiency of loading etoposide, but at higher concentrations (2.5 mg/ml) incorporation decreased from 80+/-3.4% to 44+/-4.26%. MAG-C reduced the incorporation of dacarbazine. The incorporation was significantly lower compared to liposomal etoposide, both in the presence and absence of MAG-C. The incorporation efficiency of vinblastine sulfate in cationic liposomes was similar for low and relatively high MAG-C content; values for incorporation were 21+/-0.11 and 23+/-2, respectively. Polyethylene-glycol improved the efficiency of loading chemotherapeutic agents regardless of drug type. Additionally, cytotoxicity and tumor vascular targeting characteristics of liposome therapeutics were not influenced by MAG-C. The components used to prepare magnetic liposomes for MDT should be optimized for maximum therapeutic benefit.Biomaterials 12/2007; 28(31):4673-83. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The specific delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to their desired targets with a minimum of systemic side effects is an important, ongoing challenge of chemotherapy. One approach, developed in the past to address this problem, is the i.v. injection of magnetic particles [ferrofluids (FFs)] bound to anticancer agents that are then concentrated in the desired area (e.g., the tumor) by an external magnetic field. In the present study, we treated squamous cell carcinoma in rabbits with FFs bound to mitoxantrone (FF-MTX) that was concentrated with a magnetic field. Experimental VX-2 squamous cell carcinoma was implanted in the median portion of the hind limb of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 26). When the tumor had reached a volume of approximately 3500 mm3, FF-MTX was injected intraarterially (i.a.; femoral artery) or i.v. (ear vein), whereas an external magnetic field was focused on the tumor. FF-MTX i.a. application with the external magnetic field resulted in a significant (P < 0.05), complete, and permanent remission of the squamous cell carcinoma compared with the control group (no treatment) and the i.v. FF-MTX group, with no signs of toxicity. The intratumoral accumulation of FFs was visualized both histologically and by magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, our data show that i.a. application of FF-MTX is successful in treating experimental squamous cell carcinoma. This "magnetic drug targeting" offers a unique opportunity to treat malignant tumors locoregionally without systemic toxicity. Furthermore, it may be possible to use these magnetic particles as a "carrier system" for a variety of anticancer agents, e.g., radionuclides, cancer-specific antibodies, and genes.Cancer Research 12/2000; 60(23):6641-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor