Targeted temperature sensitive magnetic liposomes for thermo-chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT We describe folate receptor targeted thermosensitive magnetic liposomes, which are designed to combine features of biological and physical (magnetic) drug targeting for use in magnetic hyperthermia-triggered drug release. The optimized liposome formulation DPPC:cholesterol:DSPE-PEG(2000):DSPE-PEG(2000)-Folate at 80:20:4.5:0.5 molar ratio showed calcein release of about 70% both in PBS and in 50% FBS (fetal bovine serum) at 43 degrees C and less than 5% release at 37 degrees C following 1h incubation. Folate-targeted doxorubicin-containing magnetic liposomes of the above lipid composition (MagFolDox) showed encapsulation efficiencies of about 85% and 24% for doxorubicin and magnetic nanoparticles (mean crystallite size 10nm), respectively. This magnetic formulation displayed the desired temperature sensitivity with 52% doxorubicin release in 50% fetal bovine serum (FBS) following 1h incubation at 43 degrees C. MagFolDox, when physically targeted to tumor cells in culture by a permanent magnetic field yielded a substantial increase in cellular uptake of doxorubicin as compared to Caelyx (a commercially available liposomal doxorubicin preparation), non-magnetic folate-targeted liposomes (FolDox) and free doxorubicin in folate receptor expressing tumor cell lines (KB and HeLa cells). This resulted in a parallel increase in cytotoxicity over Caelyx and FolDox. Magnetic hyperthermia at 42.5 degrees C and 43.5 degrees C synergistically increased the cytotoxicity of MagFolDox. The results suggest that an integrated concept of biological and physical drug targeting, triggered drug release and hyperthermia based on magnetic field influence can be used advantageously for thermo-chemotherapy of cancers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aggressive surgical resection is the primary therapy for glioma. However, aggressive resection may compromise functional healthy brain tissue. Currently, there are no objective cues for surgeons to distinguish healthy tissue from tumor and determine tumor borders; surgeons skillfully rely on subjective means such as tactile feedback. This often results in incomplete resection and recurrence. The objective of the present study was to design, develop, and evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, a nanoencapsulated visible dye for intraoperative, visual delineation of tumor margins in an invasive tumor model. Liposomal nanocarriers containing Evans blue dye (nano-EB) were developed, characterized, and tested for safety in vitro and in vivo. 3RT1RT2A glioma cells were implanted into brains of Fischer 344 rats. Nano-EB or EB solution was injected via tail vein into tumor-bearing animals. To assess tumor staining, tissue samples were analyzed visibly and using fluorescence microscopy. Area, perimeter ratios, and Manders overlap coefficients were calculated to quantify extent of staining. Nano-EB clearly marked tumor margins in the invasive tumor model. Area ratio of nano-EB staining to tumor was 0.89 ± 0.05, perimeter ratio was 0.94 ± 0.04, Manders R was 0.51 ± 0.08, and M1 was 0.97 ± 0.06. Microscopic tumor border inspection under high magnification verified that nano-EB did not stain healthy tissue. Nano-EB clearly aids in distinguishing tumor tissue from healthy tissue in an invasive tumor model, while injection of unencapsulated EB results in false identification of healthy tissue as tumor due to diffusion of dye from the tumor into healthy tissue.Drug Delivery and Translational Research.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) comprised of nanoengineered complexes are providing new opportunities for enabling targeted delivery of a range of therapeutics and combinations. A range of functionalities can be included within a nanoparticle complex, including surface chemistry that allows attachment of cell-specific ligands for targeted delivery, surface coatings to increase circulation times for enhanced bioavailability, specific materials on the surface or in the nanoparticle core that enable storage of a therapeutic cargo until the target site is reached, and materials sensitive to local or remote actuation cues that allow controlled delivery of therapeutics to the target cells. However, despite the potential benefits of NPs as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of NP materials, as well as their size and shape. The need to validate each NP for safety and efficacy with each therapeutic compound or combination of therapeutics is an enormous challenge, which forces industry to focus mainly on those nanoparticle materials where data on safety and efficacy already exists, i.e., predominantly polymer NPs. However, the enhanced functionality affordable by inclusion of metallic materials as part of nanoengineered particles provides a wealth of new opportunity for innovation and new, more effective, and safer therapeutics for applications such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, which require selective targeting of the therapeutic to maximize effectiveness while avoiding adverse effects on non-target tissues.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2012; 69(3):389-404. · 5.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A comparative study of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm)-chitosan (CS)-based magnetic nanohydrogels (MNHGs) encapsulating functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of the parameters governing their suitability for real hyperthermia is reported. Iron oxide NPs functionalized with (a) citric acid (CA-Fe3O4), (b) ethylenediamine (Amine-Fe3O4) and (c) dimercaptosuccininc (DMSA-Fe3O4) have been synthesized and their encapsulation into MNHGs was obtained through physical encapsulation method. The structural characterizations of synthesized materials include X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, TGA, ICP-AES and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Encapsulation of the functionalized NPs into MNHGs were observed in TEM micrographs, while SEM and AFM micrographs confirmed their spherical morphology (~250–300 nm). Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) variation was measured by UV–visible spectrophotometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). MNHGs exhibited sufficient magnetization and heating ability for hyperthermia. Typically, hydrogels containing CA-Fe3O4 (50 mg/ml) raised the temperature of the medium to 43 °C, a suitable dose for in vivo application in tumor-bearing mice.Colloid and Polymer Science 290(7). · 2.16 Impact Factor