Genome analysis of two virulent Streptococcus thermophilus phages isolated in Argentina.
ABSTRACT Two Streptococcus thermophilus phages (ALQ13.2 and phiAbc2) were previously isolated from breakdowns of cheese manufacture in Argentina. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that both phages contained linear double-stranded DNA: 35,525 bp in length for the pac-type phage ALQ13.2 and 34,882 bp for the cos-type phage phiAbc2. Forty-four and 48 open reading frames (ORF) were identified for ALQ13.2 and phiAbc2, respectively. Comparative genomic analysis showed that these isolates shared many similarities with the eight previously studied cos- and pac-phages infecting different S. thermophilus strains. In particular, part of the phiAbc2 genome was highly similar to a region of phage 7201, which was thought to be unique to this latter phage. Protein analysis of the pac-phage ALQ13.2 using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) identified three major proteins and seven minor proteins. Parallel structural proteome analysis of phiAbc2 revealed seven protein bands, two of which were related to major structural proteins, as expected for a cos-type phage. Similarities to other S. thermophilus phages suggest that the streptococcal phage diversity is not extensive in worldwide dairy factories possibly because related high-performing bacterial strains are used in starter cultures.
SourceAvailable from: Francesca Patrignani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nine Leuconostoc mesenteroides phages were isolated during blue cheese manufacture yielding faulty products with reduced eye formation. Their morphologies, restriction profiles, host ranges and long-term survival rates (25°C, 8°C, -20°C and -80°C) were analysed. Based on restriction analysis, six of them were further examined regarding resistance to physical (heat and high pressure homogenization, HPH) and chemical treatments (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, biocides A, C, E and F). According to their morphology, L. mesenteroides phages studied in the present work belonged to the Caudovirales order and Siphoviridae family. Six distinct restriction patterns were obtained with EcoRV, HindIII, ClaI and XhoI enzymes, revealing interesting phage diversity in the dairy environment. No significant reductions in phage counts were observed after ten months of storage at -20°C and -80°C, while slightly and moderate decrease in phage numbers were noticed at 8°C and 25°C, respectively. The phages subjected to heat treatments generally showed high resistance at 63°C and moderate resistance at 72°C. However, 80°C for 30min and 90°C for 2min led to complete inactivation of viral particles. In general, the best ethanol concentration tested was 75%, as complete inactivation for most Leuconostoc phages within 30min of incubation was achieved. Peracetic acid, and biocides A, C, E and F were highly effective when used at the same or at a moderately lower concentration as recommended by the producer. Usually, moderate or high concentrations (600-1600ppm) of sodium hypochlorite were necessary to completely inactivate phage particles. Leuconostoc phages were partially inactivated by HPH treatments as remaining viral particles were found even after 8 passes at 100MPa. This is the first report of L. mesenteroides phages isolated from an Argentinean dairy cheese plant. The results of this work could be useful for establishing the most effective physical and chemical treatments for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments.International journal of food microbiology 02/2014; 177C:81-88. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.012 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein Ltp encoded by temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 is the prototype of the wide-spread family of host cell surface-exposed lipoproteins involved in superinfection exclusion (sie). When screening for other S. thermophilus phages expressing this type of lipoprotein, three temperate phages-TP-EW, TP-DSM20617, and TP-778-were isolated. In this communication we present the total nucleotide sequences of TP-J34 and TP-778L. For TP-EW, a phage almost identical to TP-J34, besides the ltp gene only the two regions of deviation from TP-J34 DNA were analyzed: the gene encoding the tail protein causing an assembly defect in TP-J34 and the gene encoding the lysin, which in TP-EW contains an intron. For TP-DSM20617 only the sequence of the lysogeny module containing the ltp gene was determined. The region showed high homology to the same region of TP-778. For TP-778 we could show that absence of the attR region resulted in aberrant excision of phage DNA. The amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-EW was shown to be identical to that of mature LtpTP-J34, whereas the amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-778 was shown to differ from mature LtpTP-J34 in eight amino acid positions. LtpTP-DSM20617 was shown to differ from LtpTP-778 in just one amino acid position. In contrast to LtpTP-J34, LtpTP-778 did not affect infection of lactococcal phage P008 instead increased activity against phage P001 was noticed.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2014; 5:98. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00098 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp., and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2014; 5:7. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00007 · 3.94 Impact Factor