Characterisation of Ki11502 as a potent inhibitor of PDGF beta receptor-mediated proteoglycan synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signalling is implicated in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. PDGF expression levels are elevated in atherosclerotic lesions and play a key role in migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima. PDGF stimulates glycosaminoglycan elongation on vascular proteoglycans biglycan and decorin, a process implicated in the aetiology of atherosclerosis. We investigated the ability of the specific kinase inhibitor Ki11502 to inhibit PDGF beta receptor phosphorylation and proteoglycan synthesis in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Ki11502 inhibited PDGF-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF beta receptor autophosphorylation site and at least six other receptor-associated proteins. Ki11502 also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of PDGF-stimulated [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Total proteoglycan synthesis was assessed as incorporation of [(35)S]-sulfate. PDGF-induced a two-fold increase in [(35)S]-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycans secreted over 24h and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by Ki11502. PDGF treatment resulted in a statistically significant (P<0.01) increase in total proteoglycan core protein secretion. Treatment of cells with Ki11502 (300 nM) had no effect on basal core protein secretion and completely abolished the PDGF-stimulated component. Analysis of isolated cleaved glycosaminoglycan chains by size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that PDGF stimulated the synthesis and secretion of proteoglycans with elongated glycosaminoglycan chains and this effect was inhibited by Ki11502. Inhibition was also seen in the length of xyloside-glycosaminoglycan chains. The results demonstrate that Ki11502 is a potent and selective inhibitor of PDGF beta receptor phosphorylation, proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis in human vascular smooth muscle cells.
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ABSTRACT: (S)--Gingerol is under investigation for a variety of therapeutic uses. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β stimulates proteoglycan synthesis, leading to increased binding of low-density lipoproteins, which is the initiating step in atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of (S)--gingerol on these TGF-β-mediated proteoglycan changes to explore its potential as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Purified (S)--gingerol was assessed for its effects on proteoglycan synthesis by [(35) S]-sulfate incorporation into glycosaminoglycan chains and [(35) S]-Met/Cys incorporation into proteoglycans and total proteins in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Biglycan level was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions and the effects of (S)--gingerol on TGF-β signalling by assessment of the phosphorylation of Smads and Akt by western blotting. (S)--Gingerol concentration-dependently inhibited TGF-β-stimulated proteoglycan core protein synthesis, and this was not secondary to inhibition of total protein synthesis. (S)--Gingerol inhibited biglycan mRNA expression. (S)--Gingerol did not inhibit TGF-β-stimulated glycosaminoglycan hyperelongation or phosphorylation of Smad 2, in either the carboxy terminal or linker region, or Akt phosphorylation. The activity of (S)--gingerol to inhibit TGF-β-stimulated biglycan synthesis suggests a potential role for ginger in the prevention of atherosclerosis or other lipid-binding diseases. The signalling studies indicate a novel site of action of (S)--gingerol in inhibiting TGF-β responses.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 07/2013; 65(7):1026-36. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Suramin is a polysulfonated naphthylurea with antiparasitic and potential antineoplastic activity. Suramin's pharmacological actions, which have not yet been fully elucidated, include antagonism of the action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at its receptor. We investigated the effects of suramin on PDGF-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis. Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were incubated in the presence and absence of PDGF and suramin with [(3) H]thymidine or (35) SO4 as radiolabels. Mitogenic response was determined by [(3) H]thymidine incorporation. PDGFβ receptor phosphorylation was assessed by western blotting. Proteoglycan size and glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis and size were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Alphascreen phosphotyrosine assay kit was used to investigate PDGFβ receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition by suramin. Suramin decreased PDGF-stimulated proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and GAG chain hyperelongation. Suramin also directly inhibited PDGFβ receptor kinase activity as well as PDGFβ receptor phosphorylation in intact VSMCs. These data show that inhibition of PDGFβ receptor phosphorylation in intact cells is necessary to define a fully active PDGF antagonist. They also confirm that PDGFβ receptor kinase activity is necessary for PDGF-mediated atherogenic changes in proteoglycan synthesis and support efforts to develop PDGFβ receptor antagonists as potential anti-atherosclerotic agents.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 07/2013; 65(7):1055-63. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among the family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) has attracted increasing attention as a potential target of anti-tumor therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the function of PDGFRβ in CRC cell lines, SW480, DLD-1 and Caco-2 cells showing high PDGFRβ expression were used for receptor down-regulation by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and using the pharmacological inhibitor of PDGFRβ Ki11502. Blockade of PDGFRβ using both approaches led to moderate inhibition of proliferation and diminished activation of the downstream PI3K-signaling pathway in all three cell lines. Surprisingly, incubation with Ki11502 resulted in an arrest of SW480 cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, whereas the siRNA approach did not result in this effect. To address this difference, we analyzed the involvement of the PDGFRβ family member c-KIT in Ki11502 effectiveness, but siRNA and proliferation studies in SW480 and DLD-1 cells could not prove the involvement of c-KIT inactivation during Ki11502 treatment. Hence, an RTK activation antibody array on SW480 cells led us to the identification of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC, which is inactivated after Ki11502 treatment but not after the siRNA approach. Further studies using the SRC-specific inhibitor PP2 showed that SRC inhibition upon treatment with the inhibitor Ki11502 is responsible for the observed effects of Ki11502 in SW480 and DLD-1 CRC cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that the inhibition of PDGFRβ alone using siRNA has only moderate cellular effects in CRC cell lines; however, the multi-target inhibition of PDGFRβ, c-KIT and SRC, e.g., using Ki11502, represents a promising therapeutic intervention for the treatment of CRC.Oncotarget 07/2013; 4(7):1037-49. · 6.64 Impact Factor