Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility in focal cortical dysplasia (malformations of cortical development).

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Epilepsia (Impact Factor: 4.58). 10/2009; 50(12):2593-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02344.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Malformations of cortical development (MCD) (cortical dysplasias) are well-recognized causes of intractable epilepsy. Although a histologic classification system for MCD has been proposed by Palmini et al. (Neurology; 2004; 62:S2), studies to date have not assessed reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to analyze inter- and intraobserver agreement among eight experienced neuropathologists (NPs) with respect to this classification system.
Sections from 26 epilepsy resections were selected to represent the range of pathologies described by Palmini et al. Recuts of single sections from each case were sent to the NPs to classify. The slides were resent at a later date for reclassification. Kappa analysis for both inter- and intraobserver concordance was performed.
Interobserver agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.4968). There was > or =62.5% (5 of 8 NPs) agreement for 19 of 26 cases. The greatest concordance was present when making focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) types IIA/B classifications (12 of the 14 cases with > or =75% consensus). Mild MCD (types I/II) and FCD types IA/B classifications were the least reproducible, and used most frequently in cases without consensus. Intraobserver concordance was moderate to very good (range kappa = 0.4654-0.8504). The category with the fewest classification changes made on reevaluation was FCD type IIB (4.2%), whereas that with the most changes was mild MCD (types I/II) (52.9%).
Interobserver concordance using this approach was moderate. The classification categories with the greatest concordance were FCD type IIA/B, and the least, mild MCD and FCD types IA/B. In addition, difficulty in differentiating Mild MCD/FCD type I lesions from normal and/or gliotic tissue was noted.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose Epilepsy surgery for medically refractory epilepsy secondary to cortical dysplasia in children poses special challenges. We aim to review the current available literature on the outcome after epilepsy surgery for cortical dysplasia in children and critically evaluate the prognostic predictors of outcome. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed focusing on the outcome after epilepsy surgery for cortical dysplasia in children. Two large recent meta-analyses that included children and adults and several pediatric series of cortical dysplasia in children were reviewed. Results and Conclusions The overall seizure freedom rates range from 40 to 73 %, at about 2 years after surgery; most studies report 50–55% success rate. Complete resection of the epileptogenic lesion/zone remains the most important variable predictive of postoperative seizure freedom. Features unique to cortical dysplasia that limits our ability to ensure complete resection of the epileptogenic zone are reviewed.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are a well-recognized cause of medically intractable epilepsy. They are defined as malformations of cortical development and are marked by abnormalities of cortical layering and neuronal differentiation and maturation. A number of classification approaches have been devised over the last four decades, indicating controversies surrounding issues of recognition, definition, and philosophical approach. More recent attempts have attempted to correlate morphologic phenotype with clinical or developmental parameters in order to provide a clinical relevance. Discussion This short review provides an overview of the issues which account for the varied historical approaches to FCD classification and descriptions of gross pathologic findings associated with FCD and an overview of two more recently developed and widely used schema, the Palmini et al. (Neurology 62: S2-8, 2004) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classifications Blumcke et al. Epilepsia 52: 158-174, 2011. The pathologic features of these two approaches will be reviewed and compared, including discussion of their limitations.
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