Klf4 Directly Interacts with Oct4 and Sox2 to Promote Reprogramming
ABSTRACT Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ectopic expression of specific sets of transcription factors. Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, factors that share many target genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, are critical components in various reprogramming protocols. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether these factors function together or separately in reprogramming. Here we show that Klf4 interacts directly with Oct4 and Sox2 when expressed at levels sufficient to induce iPS cells. Endogenous Klf4 also interacts with Oct4 and Sox2 in iPS cells and in mouse ES cells. The Klf4 C terminus, which contains three tandem zinc fingers, is critical for this interaction and is required for activation of the target gene Nanog. In addition, Klf4 and Oct4 co-occupy the Nanog promoter. A dominant negative mutant of Klf4 can compete with wild-type Klf4 to form defective Oct4/Sox2/Klf4 complexes and strongly inhibit reprogramming. In the absence of Klf4 overexpression, interaction of endogenous Klf4 with Oct4/Sox2 is also required for reprogramming. This study supports the idea that direct interactions between Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 are critical for somatic cell reprogramming.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Gang Bai, Jun 03, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Yi-Ching Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Overexpression of Oct4, a stemness gene encoding a transcription factor, has been reported in several cancers. However, the mechanism by which Oct4 directs transcriptional program that leads to somatic cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we provide mechanistic insight into Oct4-driven transcriptional network promoting drug-resistance and metastasis in lung cancer cell, animal and clinical studies. Through an integrative approach combining our Oct4 chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing and ENCODE datasets, we identified the genome-wide binding regions of Oct4 in lung cancer at promoter and enhancer of numerous genes involved in critical pathways which promote tumorigenesis. Notably, PTEN and TNC were previously undefined targets of Oct4. In addition, novel Oct4-binding motifs were found to overlap with DNA elements for Sp1 transcription factor. We provided evidence that Oct4 suppressed PTEN in an Sp1-dependent manner by recruitment of HDAC1/2, leading to activation of AKT signaling and drug-resistance. In contrast, Oct4 transactivated TNC independent of Sp1 and resulted in cancer metastasis. Clinically, lung cancer patients with Oct4 high, PTEN low and TNC high expression profile significantly correlated with poor disease-free survival. Our study reveals a critical Oct4-driven transcriptional program that promotes lung cancer progression, illustrating the therapeutic potential of targeting Oc4 transcriptionally regulated genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; 43(3). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv024 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are self renewable and can differentiate to different types of adult cells, which has shown great promises in the field of regenerative medicine. iPSCs are reprogrammed from human somatic cells through ectopic expression of various transcription factors viz. Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM). This novel technology enables derivation of patient specific cells, which possess a potential cure for many diseases. During the last decade, significant progresses have been achieved in enhancing the reprogramming efficiency, safety of iPSCs derivation, development of different delivery techniques by various research groups. Nevertheless, it is important to resolve and define the mechanism underlying the pluripotent stem cells. Major bottleneck which arises during iPSCs generation is the availability of source material (cells/tissues), difficulty to deliver transcription factors with no aberrant genetic modifications and limited reprogramming efficiency. Reprogramming may be achieved by employing different cocktails with number of different transcription factors, application of miRNA and some small molecules such as (Valproic acid, CHiR99021, Sodium butyrate, Vitamin C, Parnate etc). Similarly, various starting source materials have been demonstrated for iPSC based therapies including fibroblasts, cord blood, peripheral blood, keritinocytes, urine, etc., with their specific uses and limitations. Moreover, with the advent of many new reprogramming techniques, various direct delivery methods have been introduced such as using synthetic mRNA expressing pluripotent gene network has been shown to be an appropriate technique to deliver transcription factors and a dozen of small molecules which can replace transcription factors or enhance reprogramming efficiency. This article addresses the iPSCs technology mechanisms, progresses and current perspectives in the field.
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ABSTRACT: Cell metabolism is adaptive to extrinsic demands; however, the intrinsic metabolic demands that drive the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) program remain unclear. Although glycolysis increases throughout the reprogramming process, we show that the estrogen-related nuclear receptors (ERRα and ERRγ) and their partnered co-factors PGC-1α and PGC-1β are transiently induced at an early stage, resulting in a burst of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity. Upregulation of ERRα or ERRγ is required for the OXPHOS burst in both human and mouse cells, respectively, as well as iPSC generation itself. Failure to induce this metabolic switch collapses the reprogramming process. Furthermore, we identify a rare pool of Sca1(-)/CD34(-) sortable cells that is highly enriched in bona fide reprogramming progenitors. Transcriptional profiling confirmed that these progenitors are ERRγ and PGC-1β positive and have undergone extensive metabolic reprogramming. These studies characterize a previously unrecognized, ERR-dependent metabolic gate prior to establishment of induced pluripotency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell stem cell 04/2015; 16(5). DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2015.03.001 · 22.15 Impact Factor