Article

Intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants: mechanism of disease.

Department of Pediatrics, Anatomy and Cell Biology, New York Medical College-Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.84). 09/2009; 67(1):1-8. DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181c1b176
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of prematurity. IVH typically initiates in the germinal matrix, which is a richly vascularized collection of neuronal-glial precursor cells in the developing brain. The etiology of IVH is multifactorial and is primarily attributed to the intrinsic fragility of the germinal matrix vasculature and the disturbance in the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Although this review broadly describes the pathogenesis of IVH, the main focus is on the recent development in molecular mechanisms that elucidates the fragility of the germinal matrix vasculature. The microvasculature of the germinal matrix is frail because of an abundance of angiogenic blood vessels that exhibit paucity of pericytes, immaturity of basal lamina, and deficiency of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the ensheathing astrocytes endfeet. High VEGF and angiopoietin-2 levels activate a rapid angiogenesis in the germinal matrix. The elevation of these growth factors may be ascribed to a relative hypoxia of the germinal matrix perhaps resulting from high metabolic activity and oxygen consumption of the neural progenitor cells. Hence, the rapid stabilization of the angiogenic vessels and the restoration of normal CBF on the first day of life are potential strategies to prevent IVH in premature infants.

0 Followers
 · 
91 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Data were collected retrospectively from electronic records: Standardised Electronic Neonatal Database, Electronic Patient Record, Pathology (WinPath), and Blood Bank Electronic Database. The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre with around 5,500 deliveries and a neonatal unit admission of 750 infants per year. All inborn preterm infants of 23 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA) admitted to the neonatal unit from January 2006 to September 2012 were included.The primary outcomes were intra-ventricular haemorrhage, necrotising entero-colitis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and death before discharge. The secondary outcomes were receiving blood transfusion and length of intensive care and neonatal unit days. The association between Hb level (g/dL) at birth and outcomes was analysed by multiple logistic regression adjusting for GA and birth weight (BWt). Overall, 920 infants were eligible; 28 were excluded because of missing data and 2 for lethal congenital malformation. The mean (SD) GA was 28.3 (2.7) weeks, BWt was 1,140 (414) g, and Hb level at birth was 15.8 (2.6) g/dL.Hb level at birth was significantly associated with all primary outcomes studied (P <0.001) in univariate analyses. Once GA and BWt were adjusted for, only death before discharge remained statistically significant; the OR of death for infants with Hb level at birth <12 g/dL compared with those with Hb level at birth of ≥18 g/dL was 4.1 (95% CI, 1.4-11.6). Hb level at birth was also significantly associated with blood transfusion received (P <0.01) but not with duration of intensive care or neonatal unit days. Low Hb level at birth was significantly associated with mortality and receiving blood transfusion in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Further studies are needed to determine the association between Hb level at birth and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.
    BMC Medicine 01/2015; 13(1):16. DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0247-6 · 7.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Prior work showed that whole blood, plasma, and serum injections are damaging to the neonatal rodent brain in a model of intracerebral / periventricular hemorrhage. Thrombin alone is also damaging. In adult animal models of hemorrhagic stroke, the protease-activated (thrombin) receptor PAR1 mediates some of the brain damage. We hypothesized that PAR1 interference will reduce the adverse effects of blood products on immature rodent brain and cells.ResultsCultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells from rats and mice were exposed to blood plasma with and without the PAR1 antagonists SCH-79797 or BMS-200261. In concentrations previously shown to have activity on brain cells, neither drug showed evidence of protection against the toxicity of blood plasma. Newborn mice (wild type, heterozygous, and PAR1 knockout) were subjected to intracerebral injection of autologous whole blood into the periventricular region of the frontal lobe. Cell proliferation, measured by Ki67 immunoreactivity in the subventricular zone, was suppressed at 1 and 2 days, and was not normalized in the knockout mice. Cell apoptosis, measured by activated caspase 3 immunoreactivity, was not apparent in the subventricular zone. Increased apoptosis in periventricular striatal cells was not normalized in the knockout mice.Conclusion Interference with the thrombin-PAR1 system does not reduce the adverse effects of blood on germinal cells of the immature rodent brain. PAR1 interference is unlikely to be a useful treatment for reducing the brain damage that accompanies periventricular (germinal matrix) hemorrhage, a common complication of premature birth.
    Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine 02/2015; 14(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s12952-014-0022-4 · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disorders of the developing brain represent a major health problem. The neurological manifestations of brain lesions can range from severe clinical deficits to more subtle neurological signs or behavioral problems and learning disabilities, which often become evident many years after the initial damage. These long-term sequelae are due at least in part to central nervous system immaturity at the time of the insult. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain and maintains homeostasis. BBB alterations are observed during both acute and chronic brain insults. After an insult, excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters are released, causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent changes in BBB permeability that allow immune cells to enter and stimulate an inflammatory response. The cytokines, chemokines and other molecules released as well as peripheral and local immune cells can activate an inflammatory cascade in the brain, leading to secondary neurodegeneration that can continue for months or even years and finally contribute to post-insult neuronal deficits. The role of the BBB in perinatal disorders is poorly understood. The inflammatory response, which can be either acute (e.g., perinatal stroke, traumatic brain injury) or chronic (e.g., perinatal infectious diseases) actively modulates the pathophysiological processes underlying brain injury. We present an overview of current knowledge about BBB dysfunction in the developing brain during acute and chronic insults, along with clinical and experimental data.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 02/2015; 9:40. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00040

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from