To investigate structural remodeling of the developing corneal stroma concomitant with changing sulfation patterns of keratan sulfate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes during embryogenesis and the onset of corneal transparency.
Developing chick corneas were obtained from embryonic day (E)12 to E18 of incubation. Extracellular matrix composition and collagen fibril spacing were evaluated by synchrotron x-ray diffraction, hydroxyproline assay, ELISA (with antibodies against lesser and more highly sulfated KS), and transmission electron microscopy with specific proteoglycan staining.
A significant relative increase in highly sulfated KS epitope labeling occurred with respect to hydroxyproline content in the final week of chick development, as mean collagen interfibrillar distance decreased. Small KS PG filaments increased in frequency with development and were predominantly fibril associated.
The accumulation of highly sulfated KS during the E12 to E18 timeframe could serve to fine tune local matrix hydration and collagen fibril spacing during corneal growth, as gross dehydration and compaction of the stroma progress through the action of the nascent endothelial pump.
"Our in vivo studies revealed no change in sulfated keratan sulfate three weeks after wounding, with or without Y-27632 application, as identified by immunohistochemistry with an antibody (5D4), which recognizes a minimally pentasulfated epitope on the keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chain . Large proteoglycan filaments, which are seen in the stromal matrix in the center of the healing wound, are similar in character to stained structures that have been reported previously in healing corneas [34,35,49] and in embryonic corneas . In these tissues, they represent oversulfated proteoglycans of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate class , and it is likely that that is the case here too, although we did not definitively identify the glycosaminoglycan as chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate by prior lyase digestion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our study examined the effect of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, on corneal wound healing and potential stromal scarring after superficial keratectomy.
Rabbit keratocytes were induced into myofibroblasts by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) either with or without Y-27632. Then α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and the contractility of the seeded collagen gels was measured. Y-27632 eye drops (or vehicle only) were administered to eyes after a superficial keratectomy, and the tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry for α-SMA, collagen types I, II, and III, and keratan sulfate. Electron microscopy was conducted with and without histochemical contrasting of sulfated proteoglycans.
Spindle-like cells in culture constituted 99.5±1.1% with TGFβ1 stimulation, but 3.5±1.0% after TGFβ1 and Y-27632 treatment (p<0.01, n=6). α-SMA was seen in 4% of TGFβ1-treated cells, but in only 0.3% of cells with Y-27632 added (p<0.01, n=6), which was confirmed by western blotting. Y-27632 also inhibited the TGFβ1-induced contraction of seeded collagen gels. After superficial keratectomies, collagen type I and keratan sulfate were unchanged by Y-27632 application. Collagen type II was not detected in Y-27632 or vehicle-only corneas. With Y-27632 treatment, α-SMA expression increased and the collagen type III signal became in the weaker subepithelial area. Interestingly, bundles of aligned and uniformly spaced collagen fibrils were more prevalent in keratocytes in Y-27632-treated corneas, which is reminiscent of fibripositor-like structures that have been proposed as a mechanism of matrix deposition in embryonic connective tissues.
Y-27632 inhibits keratocyte-to-myofibroblast transition, and its topical application after a superficial lamellar keratectomy elicits an altered wound healing response, with evidence of an embryonic-type deposition of collagen fibrils.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratan sulphate (KS) is the predominant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in the cornea of the eye, where it exists in proteoglycan (PG) form. KS-PGs have long been thought to play a pivotal role in the establishment and maintenance of the array of regularly-spaced and uniformly- thin collagen fibrils which make up the corneal stroma. This characteristic arrangement of fibrils allows light to pass through the cornea. Indeed, perturbations to the synthesis of KS-PG core proteins in genetically altered mice lead to structural matrix alterations and corneal opacification. Similarly, mutations in enzymes responsible for the sulphation of KS-GAG chains are causative for the inherited human disease, macular corneal dystrophy, which is manifested clinically by progressive corneal cloudiness starting in young adulthood.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 03/2010; 67(6):891-906. DOI:10.1007/s00018-009-0228-7 · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biospectroscopy tools are increasingly being recognized as novel approaches toward interrogating complex biological structures in a nondestructive fashion. This study was conducted to apply these tools to interrogate alterations in the molecular signatures of developing chick corneas during the onset and development of transparency.
Embryonic chick corneas (n = 46) were obtained at 2-day intervals from embryonic day (E)10 to E18 of incubation and investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. Resultant spectra were analyzed for variance by using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA).
Mean spectra after ATR-FTIR spectroscopy or Raman microspectroscopy derived from corneas at each developmental stage showed some overlap; however, in PCA-LDA scores plots, a clear segregation of spectra was evident, and two-category discrimination indicated that significant molecular alterations occur during tissue morphogenesis. Notable by both techniques was the increasing intensity of DNA signal (1080 cm⁻¹) from E10 onward. Major segregating biomarkers identified by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy between E10 and E18 were in the DNA/RNA (1126 cm⁻¹), glycogen (1045 cm⁻¹), protein (1470 cm⁻¹), and amide II (1512 cm⁻¹ and 1524 cm⁻¹) spectral regions. Raman spectroscopy also identified major distinguishing vibrational modes that included proteins, amino acids (tyrosine, proline phenylalanine, and valine), and secondary structures of proteins (amide I and amide II).
The developing chick cornea undergoes significant changes in its biomolecular composition in the E10 to E18 developmental period, with the major changes occurring in the spectral regions associated with DNA/RNA, proteins, glycogen, and secondary protein structures.
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