Differential relative sulfation of Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan in the chick cornea during embryonic development.
ABSTRACT To investigate structural remodeling of the developing corneal stroma concomitant with changing sulfation patterns of keratan sulfate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes during embryogenesis and the onset of corneal transparency.
Developing chick corneas were obtained from embryonic day (E)12 to E18 of incubation. Extracellular matrix composition and collagen fibril spacing were evaluated by synchrotron x-ray diffraction, hydroxyproline assay, ELISA (with antibodies against lesser and more highly sulfated KS), and transmission electron microscopy with specific proteoglycan staining.
A significant relative increase in highly sulfated KS epitope labeling occurred with respect to hydroxyproline content in the final week of chick development, as mean collagen interfibrillar distance decreased. Small KS PG filaments increased in frequency with development and were predominantly fibril associated.
The accumulation of highly sulfated KS during the E12 to E18 timeframe could serve to fine tune local matrix hydration and collagen fibril spacing during corneal growth, as gross dehydration and compaction of the stroma progress through the action of the nascent endothelial pump.
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ABSTRACT: The chemical composition and sulfur (S) speciation of developing chick corneas at embryonic days 12, 14, and 16 were investigated using synchrotron scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. The aim was to develop techniques for the analysis of bulk tissue and identify critical physicochemical variations that correlate with changes in corneal structure-function relationships. Derived data were subjected to principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis, which highlighted differences in the elemental and S species composition at different stages of embryonic growth. Notably, distinct elemental compositions of chlorine, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and S altered with development during the transition of the immature opaque cornea to a mature transparent tissue. S structure spectroscopy revealed developmentally regulated alterations in thiols, organic monosulfides, ester sulfate, and inorganic sulfate species. The transient molecular structures and compositional changes reported here provide a deeper understanding of the underlying basis of corneal development during the acquisition of transparency. The experimental and analytical approach is new, to our knowledge, and has wide potential applicability in the life sciences.Biophysical Journal 07/2012; 103(2):357-64. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of tissues can influence their form and function. As a prime example, the lattice-like arrangement of collagen fibrils required for corneal transparency is controlled, in part, by sulfated proteoglycans, which, via core proteins, bind to the collagen at specific locations along the fibril axis. However, to date, no studies have been able to directly identify and characterize sulfur (S) in the cornea as a function of tissue location. In this study, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy and micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) chemical contrast imaging were employed to probe the nature of the mature (bovine) cornea as a function of position from the anterior sub-epithelial region into the deep stroma. Data indicate an inhomogeneity in the composition of S species in the first ≈50 μm of stromal depth. In μ-XRF chemical contrast imaging, S did not co-localize with phosphorous (P) in the deep stroma where sulfates are prominent. Rather, P is present only as isolated micrometric spots, presumably identifiable as keratocytes. This study lends novel insights into the elemental physiology of mature cornea, especially in relation to its S distribution; future studies could be applied to human tissues. Moreover, it defines an analytical protocol for the interrogation of S species in biological tissues with micrometric resolution.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 06/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our study examined the effect of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, on corneal wound healing and potential stromal scarring after superficial keratectomy. Rabbit keratocytes were induced into myofibroblasts by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) either with or without Y-27632. Then α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and the contractility of the seeded collagen gels was measured. Y-27632 eye drops (or vehicle only) were administered to eyes after a superficial keratectomy, and the tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry for α-SMA, collagen types I, II, and III, and keratan sulfate. Electron microscopy was conducted with and without histochemical contrasting of sulfated proteoglycans. Spindle-like cells in culture constituted 99.5±1.1% with TGFβ1 stimulation, but 3.5±1.0% after TGFβ1 and Y-27632 treatment (p<0.01, n=6). α-SMA was seen in 4% of TGFβ1-treated cells, but in only 0.3% of cells with Y-27632 added (p<0.01, n=6), which was confirmed by western blotting. Y-27632 also inhibited the TGFβ1-induced contraction of seeded collagen gels. After superficial keratectomies, collagen type I and keratan sulfate were unchanged by Y-27632 application. Collagen type II was not detected in Y-27632 or vehicle-only corneas. With Y-27632 treatment, α-SMA expression increased and the collagen type III signal became in the weaker subepithelial area. Interestingly, bundles of aligned and uniformly spaced collagen fibrils were more prevalent in keratocytes in Y-27632-treated corneas, which is reminiscent of fibripositor-like structures that have been proposed as a mechanism of matrix deposition in embryonic connective tissues. Y-27632 inhibits keratocyte-to-myofibroblast transition, and its topical application after a superficial lamellar keratectomy elicits an altered wound healing response, with evidence of an embryonic-type deposition of collagen fibrils.Molecular vision 01/2012; 18:1727-39. · 1.99 Impact Factor