Premature deaths attributable to blood pressure in China: a prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT Hypertension is a major global-health challenge because of its high prevalence and concomitant risks of cardiovascular disease. We estimated premature deaths attributable to increased blood pressure in China.
We did a prospective cohort study in a nationally representative sample of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older. Blood pressure and other risk factors were measured at a baseline examination in 1991 and follow-up assessment was done in 1999-2000. Premature death was defined as mortality before age 72 years in men and 75 years in women, which were the average life expectancies in China in 2005. We calculated the numbers of total and premature deaths attributable to blood pressure using population-attributable risk, mortality, and the population size of China in 2005.
Hypertension and prehypertension were significantly associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (p<0.0001). We estimated that in 2005, 2.33 million (95% CI 2.21-2.45) cardiovascular deaths were attributable to increased blood pressure in China: 2.11 million (2.03-2.20) in adults with hypertension and 0.22 million (0.19-0.25) in adults with prehypertension. Additionally, 1.27 million (1.18-1.36) premature cardiovascular deaths were attributable to raised blood pressure in China: 1.15 million (1.08-1.22) in adults with hypertension and 0.12 million (0.10-0.14) in adults with prehypertension. Most blood pressure-related deaths were caused by cerebrovascular diseases: 1.86 million (1.76-1.96) total deaths and 1.08 million (1.00-1.15) premature deaths.
Increased blood pressure is the leading preventable risk factor for premature mortality in the Chinese general population. Prevention and control of this condition should receive top public-health priority in China.
American Heart Association (USA); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (USA); Ministry of Health (China); and Ministry of Science and Technology (China).
SourceAvailable from: Masanobu OkayamaExperimental and clinical cardiology 01/2014; 20(10):6523-6536. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite revolutionary advancement in medicine over the past century, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Likewise, the morbidity and mortality of CVD in China are increasing persistently, although the government has taken an active part in the prevention and control of CVD. Here we present an overview regarding the current CVD status in China with respect to various disease phenotypes, as well as the anticipated future trend in accordance with the dynamics and distribution of pathogenesis in Chinese actual situations.03/2015; 6:25-31. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcha.2014.10.002
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and approach of primary care physician (PCP) towards the management of hypertension in Cameroon. In 2012 we surveyed 77 PCPs among the 111 working in the West region of Cameroon. We used a standardized questionnaire assessing practices regarding the detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension, and source of information about updates on hypertension. Participants had a mean duration of practice of 10.1 (SD 7.6) years, and received an average of 10.5 (SD 5.8) patients daily. Most of the PCPs (80.5%, n=62) measured blood pressure (BP) for all adult patients in consultation, however, only 63.6% (n=49) used correct BP thresholds to diagnose hypertension. Sixty-seven PCPs (87.0%) ordered a minimal work-up for each newly diagnosed hypertensive patient, but only the work-up offered by 8 (10.4%) PCPs was adequate. Regarding treatment, the most commonly prescribed medications as monotherapy were loop diuretics (49.3%). Bitherapy mostly included the combination of a diuretic with other drug classes. Most of PCPs used incorrect target BP, with a general tendency of using higher target levels. PCPs received updates on hypertension management mostly through drug companies representatives (53.2%, n=41). Up to 97.4% were willing to receive continuing medical training on hypertension. PCPs' knowledge and management of hypertension is poor in this region of Cameroon. Our data point to a need for continually updating the teaching curricula of medical schools with regard to the management of hypertension, and physicians in the field should receive continuing medical education.