Premature deaths attributable to blood pressure in China: a prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT Hypertension is a major global-health challenge because of its high prevalence and concomitant risks of cardiovascular disease. We estimated premature deaths attributable to increased blood pressure in China.
We did a prospective cohort study in a nationally representative sample of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older. Blood pressure and other risk factors were measured at a baseline examination in 1991 and follow-up assessment was done in 1999-2000. Premature death was defined as mortality before age 72 years in men and 75 years in women, which were the average life expectancies in China in 2005. We calculated the numbers of total and premature deaths attributable to blood pressure using population-attributable risk, mortality, and the population size of China in 2005.
Hypertension and prehypertension were significantly associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (p<0.0001). We estimated that in 2005, 2.33 million (95% CI 2.21-2.45) cardiovascular deaths were attributable to increased blood pressure in China: 2.11 million (2.03-2.20) in adults with hypertension and 0.22 million (0.19-0.25) in adults with prehypertension. Additionally, 1.27 million (1.18-1.36) premature cardiovascular deaths were attributable to raised blood pressure in China: 1.15 million (1.08-1.22) in adults with hypertension and 0.12 million (0.10-0.14) in adults with prehypertension. Most blood pressure-related deaths were caused by cerebrovascular diseases: 1.86 million (1.76-1.96) total deaths and 1.08 million (1.00-1.15) premature deaths.
Increased blood pressure is the leading preventable risk factor for premature mortality in the Chinese general population. Prevention and control of this condition should receive top public-health priority in China.
American Heart Association (USA); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (USA); Ministry of Health (China); and Ministry of Science and Technology (China).
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ABSTRACT: Fruits of Nitraria sibirica Pall. are traditionally used in Uighur medicine to treat hypertension. This study aimed to support that folk use by defining their vasoactive and hypotensive properties. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of a hydroalcoholic extract from the fruits of Nitraria sibirica Pall. (NSHE) were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats. In addition, the acute hypotensive effect of NSHE was assessed in anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in their normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. NSHE (0.1-10 g/l) was clearly more effective to induce vasodilation of phenylephrine- (PE, 1 μM) than high KCl- (60mM) pre-contracted aortic rings with respective E(max) values of 82.9±2.2% and 34.8±3.6%. The removal of endothelium almost abolished the relaxant effect of the extract. In addition, pre-treatment with N(w)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM), atropine (1 μM) or charybdotoxin (30 nM) plus apamin (30 nM), respective blockers of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, muscarinic receptors and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), significantly reduced the observed effect of NSHE. By contrast, the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (10 μM) or the K(+) channels blockers glibenclamide (10 μM), iberiotoxin (30 nM) and 4-amino-pyridine (4-AP, 1 mM) failed to modify the vasodilation. Finally, the acute intravenous injection of NSHE (1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) induced an immediate and transient hypotensive effect in anesthetized SHR and in WKY rats. This experimental animal study suggests that hydroalcoholic extract from the fruits of Nitraria sibirica Pall. induces vasorelaxation through an endothelium-dependent pathway involving NO synthase (NOS) activation, EDHF production and muscarinic receptor stimulation. Additionally, our results determine that this vasorelaxant effect is translated by a significant hypotensive effect.Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2011; 141(2):629-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.012 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (ZC) is widely used in Uyghur folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension diseases in Xinjiang, an autonomous region of China. To provide pharmacological basis for this traditional use, we explored the vasodilating effects of ZC and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Activity of hexane (ZCHE), dichloromethane (ZCDE) and aqueous (ZCAE) extracts of ZC were evaluated on isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE) or high KCl. The mechanisms were evaluated on ZCDE, the most potent extract. ZCDE-induced relaxation in endothelium-intact aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE, 10(-6) M) or high KCl (6×10(-2) M), with respective EC(50) values of 0.27±0.03 and 0.34±0.04 g/l. Mechanic removal of the endothelium did not significantly modify ZCDE-induced relaxation. In endothelium-denuded aorta pre-contracted with PE (10(-6) M), the vasorelaxant effect of ZCDE was significantly decreased by 4-amino-pyridine (10(-3) M), but not by glibenclamide (10(-4) M), iberiotoxin (3×10(-8) M) and thapsigargin (10(-7) M). In Ca(2+) free solution, ZCDE significantly inhibited extracellular Ca(2+)-induced contraction in high KCl and PE pre-contracted rings. Additionally ZDCE inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) release sensitive to PE (10(-6) M). The results demonstrate that ZDCE exhibits endothelium-independent vasodilating properties that are mediated by inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) influx through voltage- and receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels (VDDCs and ROCCs), by inhibition of Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, and also by the opening of voltage-dependent K(+) channels.Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2010; 132(1):268-73. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.028 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and both may increase as outdoor temperatures fall. However, there are still limited data about seasonal variation in blood pressure and CVD mortality among patients with prior-CVD. We analysed data on 23 000 individuals with prior-CVD who were recruited from 10 diverse regions into the China Kadoorie Biobank during 2004-8. After 7 years of follow-up, 1484 CVD deaths were recorded. Baseline survey data were used to assess seasonal variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its association with outdoor temperature. Cox regression was used to examine the association of usual SBP with subsequent CVD mortality, and seasonal variation in CVD mortality was assessed by Poisson regression. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and region. Mean SBP was significantly higher in winter than in summer (145 vs. 136 mmHg, P < 0.001), especially among those without central heating. Above 5°C, each 10°C lower outdoor temperature was associated with 6.2 mmHg higher SBP. Systolic blood pressure predicted subsequent CVD mortality, with each 10 mmHg higher usual SBP associated with 21% (95% confidence interval: 16-27%) increased risk. Cardiovascular disease mortality varied by season, with 41% (21-63%) higher risk in winter compared with summer. Among adult Chinese with prior-CVD, there is both increased blood pressure and CVD mortality in winter. Careful monitoring and more aggressive blood pressure lowering treatment in the cold months are needed to help reduce the winter excess CVD mortality in high-risk individuals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.