Developed force of papillary muscle: what index correctly indicates contractile capacity?
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that similar samples of the same normal heart should report similar contractile index values. We analyzed anterior (AP) and posterior (PP) papillary muscles (PM) of the same heart (n = 46), whose representation of force fulfills this premise calculating force (F: mN), tension (T: mN/mm2), and tension per milligram of myocardium (delta: mN/mm2/mg). In all analyses, F and +dF/dt as well as T and dT/dt values were higher in heavier PM. These differences disappeared for delta and ddelta/dt. There was a significant and positive correlation for F and T as well as its derivative with myocardial mass. Myocardial depression (verapamil) of PP, in comparison to AP, was not recognized by F or T, but was identified when reported as delta. We conclude that the normalization of tension for papillary muscle mass is the most appropriate form for reporting intrinsic contractile capacity in PM since F and T depend on the myocardial mass participating in contraction.
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ABSTRACT: Elevated concentrations of testosterone and its synthetic analogs may induce changes in cardiovascular function. However, the effects of the combination of anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment and exercise training on systolic and diastolic cardiac function are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose steroid treatment (stanozolol) on cardiac contractile parameters when this steroid treatment was combined with exercise training in rats and the effects of chronic steroid treatment on the Frank-Starling (length-tension curves) relationship. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: U (untrained), US (untrained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week), T (trained, 16 m/min/1 h) and TS (trained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week). Continuous exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks. The speed of the treadmill was gradually increased to a final setting of 16 m/min/1 h. Experiments were divided into two independent series: 1) central hemodynamic analysis for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) measurements and 2) isolated papillary muscle preparation in Krebs solution. Stanozolol treatment significantly increased the MAP and the heart size in untrained and trained rats (U 113±2; T 106±2; US 138±8 and TS 130±7 mmHg). Furthermore, stanozolol significantly decreased developed tension and dT/dt (maximal and minimal) in U rats. However, the developed tension was completely restored by training. The Frank/Starling relationship was impaired in rats treated with stanozolol; however, again, training completely restored diastolic function. Taken together, the present data suggest that AAS treatment is able to decrease cardiac performance (systolic and diastolic functions). The combination of stanozolol and physical training improved cardiac performance, including diastolic and systolic functions, independent of changes in central hemodynamic parameters. Therefore, changes in ventricular myocyte calcium transients may play a cardioprotective role.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87106. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that exercise improves renal and cardiac functions in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term aerobic swimming exercise with overload on renal and cardiac function in rats with 5/6 nefrectomy (5/6Nx). Eight Wistar rats were placed into 4 groups: Control (C), Control+Exercise (E), Sedentary 5/6Nx (NxS) and 5/6Nx+Exercise (NxE). The rats were subjected to swimming exercise sessions with overload for 30 min five days per week for five weeks. Exercise reduced the effect of 5/6Nx on creatinine clearance compared to the NxS group. In addition, exercise minimized the increase in mean proteinuria compared to the NxS group (96.9±10.0 vs. 51.4±9.9 mg/24 h; p<0.05). Blood pressure was higher in the NxS and NxE groups compared to the C and E groups (216±4 and 178±3 vs. 123±2 and 124±2 mm Hg, p<0.05). In the 200 glomeruli that were evaluated, the NxS group had a higher sclerosis index than did the NxE group (16% vs. 2%, p<0.05). Echocardiography demonstrated a higher anterior wall of the left ventricle (LV) in diastole in the NxS group compared with the C, E and NxE groups. The NxS group also had a higher LV posterior wall in diastole and systole compared with the E group. The developed isometric tension in Lmax of the heart papillary muscle was lower in the NxS group compared with the C, E and NxE groups. These results suggested that exercise in 5/6Nx animals might reduce the progression of renal disease and lessen the cardiovascular impact of a reduction in renal mass.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55363. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sympathetic hyperactivity induces adverse effects in myocardial. Recent studies have shown that exercise training induces cardioprotection against sympathetic overload; however, relevant mechanisms of this issue remain unclear. We analyzed whether exercise can prevent pathological hypertrophy induced by sympathetic hyperactivity with modulation of the kallikrein-kinin and angiogenesis pathways. Male Wistar rats were assigned to non-trained group that received vehicle; non-trained isoproterenol treated group (Iso, 0.3 mg kg-1 day-1); and trained group (Iso+Exe) which was subjected to sympathetic hyperactivity with isoproterenol. The Iso rats showed hypertrophy and myocardial dysfunction with reduced force development and relaxation of muscle. The isoproterenol induced severe fibrosis, apoptosis and reduced myocardial capillary. Interestingly, exercise blunted hypertrophy, myocardial dysfunction, fibrosis, apoptosis and capillary decreases. The sympathetic hyperactivity was associated with high abundance of ANF mRNA and β-MHC mRNA, which was significantly attenuated by exercise. The tissue kallikrein was augmented in the Iso+Exe group, and kinin B1 receptor mRNA was increased in the Iso group. Moreover, exercise induced an increase of kinin B2 receptor mRNA in myocardial. The myocardial content of eNOS, VEGF, VEGF receptor 2, pAkt and Bcl-2 were increased in the Iso+Exe group. Likewise, increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bad in the Iso rats was prevented by prior exercise. Our results represent the first demonstration that exercise can modulate kallikrein-kinin and angiogenesis pathways in the myocardial on sympathetic hyperactivity. These findings suggest that kallikrein-kinin and angiogenesis may have a key role in protecting the heart.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91017. · 3.73 Impact Factor