Renal Function in Glycogen Storage Disease Type I, Natural Course, and Renopreservative Effects of ACE Inhibition

University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30 001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 4.61). 10/2009; 4(11):1741-6. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.00050109
Source: PubMed


Renal failure is a major complication in glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I). We studied the natural course of renal function in GSD I patients. We studied differences between patients in optimal and nonoptimal metabolic control and possible renoprotective effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition.
Thirty-nine GSD I patients that visited our clinic were studied. GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured by means of I(125) iothalamate and I(131) hippuran clearance and corrected for body surface area. Microalbuminuria was defined as >2.5 mg albumin/mmol creatinine and proteinuria as >0.2 g protein per liter. Optimal metabolic control was present when blood glucoses were >3.5 mmol/L, urine lactate/creatinine ratios <0.06 mmol/mmol, triglycerides <6.0 mmol/L, and uric acid concentrations <450 micromol/L.
Quadratic regression analysis showed a biphasic pattern in the course of GFR and ERPF related to age. Microalbuminuria was observed significantly less frequently in the patients with optimal metabolic control compared with the patients with nonoptimal metabolic control. A significant decrease in GFR was observed after starting ACE inhibition.
This study describes a biphasic pattern of the natural course of GFR and ERPF in GSD I patients, followed by the development of microalbuminuria and proteinuria. Optimal metabolic control has a renoprotective effect on the development of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in GSD I patients. Treatment with ACE inhibitors significantly decreases the GFR, especially in GSD I patients with glomerular hyperfiltration.

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    • "In GSDIa patients, renal failure was the most common complication (14/58 (24%) of patients) and 3/14 (21%) required dialysis. The natural course of renal function in GSDI patients shows a biphasic pattern [41]. We identified only 1 patient with both pre- and post-transplantation renal failure; renal function was restored in the other 4 patients with pre-transplantation renal dysfunction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism, is caused by defects in the glucose-6-transporter/glucose-6-phosphatase complex, which is essential in glucose homeostasis. Two types exist, GSDIa and GSDIb, each caused by different defects in the complex. GSDIa is characterized by fasting intolerance and subsequent metabolic derangements. In addition to these clinical manifestations, patients with GSDIb suffer from neutropenia with neutrophil dysfunction and inflammatory bowel disease. With the feasibility of novel cell-based therapies, including hepatocyte transplantations and liver stem cell transplantations, it is essential to consider long term outcomes of liver replacement therapy. We reviewed all GSDI patients with liver transplantation identified in literature and through personal communication with treating physicians. Our review shows that all 80 GSDI patients showed improved metabolic control and normal fasting tolerance after liver transplantation. Although some complications might be caused by disease progression, most complications seemed related to the liver transplantation procedure and subsequent immune suppression. These results highlight the potential of other therapeutic strategies, like cell-based therapies for liver replacement, which are expected to normalize liver function with a lower risk of complications of the procedure and immune suppression.
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    • "Similarly, optimal metabolic control has been reported to have a protective effect on the development of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in patients with GSD I [12]. Normal bone density has also been associated with improved metabolic control in patients with GSD Ia [13]. "
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    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 03/2013; 109(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.03.009 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) and inborn errors of galactose and fructose metabolism are the most common representatives of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. In this review the focus is set on the current knowledge about clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Hepatomegaly and hypoglycaemia are the main findings in liver-affecting GSD like type I, III and IX. Diagnosis is usually made by non invasive investigations, e.g. mutation analysis. In GSD I, a carbohydrate balanced diet with frequent meals and nocturnal continuous tube feeding or addition of uncooked corn starch are the mainstays of treatment to prevent hypoglycaemia. Liver transplantation has been performed in different types of GSD. It should only be considered in high risk patients e.g. with substantial cirrhosis. Many countries have included classical galactosaemia in their newborn screening programs. A lactose-free infant formula can be life-saving in affected neonates whereas a strict fructose-restricted diet is indicated in hereditary fructose intolerance.
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