Raman Spectroscopy of Ripple Formation in Suspended Graphene
ABSTRACT Using Raman spectroscopy, we measure the optical phonon energies of suspended graphene before, during, and after thermal cycling between 300 and 700 K. After cycling, we observe large upshifts ( approximately 25 cm(-1)) of the G band frequency in the graphene on the substrate region due to compression induced by the thermal contraction of the underlying substrate, while the G band in the suspended region remains unchanged. From these large upshifts, we estimate the compression in the substrate region to be approximately 0.4%. The large mismatch in compression between the substrate and suspended regions causes a rippling of the suspended graphene, which compensates for the change in lattice constant due to the compression. The amplitude (A) and wavelength (lambda) of the ripples, as measured by atomic force microscopy, correspond to an effective change in length Deltal/l that is consistent with the compression values determined from the Raman data.
- SourceAvailable from: Somayeh Fardindoost[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper we present flexible strain sensors made of graphene flakes fabricated, characterized, and analyzed for the electrical actuation and readout of their mechanical vibratory response in strain-sensing applications. For a typical suspended graphene membrane fabricated with an approximate length of 10 μm, a mechanical resonance frequency around 136 MHz with a quality factor (Q) of ~60 in air under ambient conditions was observed. The applied strain can shift the resonance frequency substantially, which is found to be related to the alteration of physical dimension and the built-in strain in the graphene flake. Strain sensing was performed using both planar and nonplanar surfaces (bending with different radii of curvature) as well as by stretching with different elongations.Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 04/2015; 25(7). DOI:10.1088/0960-1317/25/7/075016 · 1.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ripple is a common deformation in two-dimensional materials due to localized strain, which is expected to greatly influence the physical properties. The effects of the ripple deformation in the MoS2 layer on their physics, however, are rarely addressed experimentally. We here grow atomically thin MoS2 nanostructures by employing a vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst and observed the ripples in MoS2 nanostructures. The MoS2 ripples exhibit quasi-periodical ripple structures in the MoS2 surface. The heights of the ripples vary from several angstroms to tens of nanometers and the wavelength is in the range of several hundred nanometers. The growth mechanism of rippled MoS2 nanostructures is elucidated. We have also simultaneously investigated the electrostatic properties of MoS2 ripples by using Kelvin probe force microscopy, which shows inhomogeneous surface potential and charge distributions for MoS2 ripple nanostructures with different local strains.Nanotechnology 02/2015; 26(10):105705. DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/26/10/105705 · 3.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report thermoelectric transport measurements across a graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/graphene heterostructure device. Using an AC lock-in technique, we are able to separate the thermoelectric contribution to the I-V characteristics of these important device structures. The temperature gradient is measured optically using Raman spectroscopy, which enables us to explore thermoelectric transport produced at material interfaces, across length scales of just 1-2 nm. Based on the observed thermoelectric voltage (ΔV) and temperature gradient (ΔT), a Seebeck coefficient of −99.3 μV/K is ascertained for the heterostructure device. The obtained Seebeck coefficient can be useful for understanding the thermoelectric component in the cross-plane I-V behaviors of emerging 2D heterostructure devices. These results provide an approach to probing thermoelectric energy conversion in two-dimensional layered heterostructures.Nano Research 02/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1007/s12274-014-0550-8 · 6.96 Impact Factor