The role of the CXCL10/CXCR3 system in type 1 diabetes.

Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2009; 6(2):81-4. DOI: 10.1900/RDS.2009.6.81
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite intervention with insulin, type 1 diabetes gradually deteriorates the patients' quality of life. The disease is characterized by an immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Its etiology, however, remains controversial. Some studies argue that glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antigen and GAD-reactive T cells are critical players in the development of diabetes by affecting the Th cell balance. A T-helper 1 (Th1)-dominant immune response is considered to be important in beta-cell failure in both human and animal models of type 1 diabetes. The Th1-type chemokine, CXCL10, and its receptor, CXCR3, are involved not only in the immune response, but also in the suppression of beta-cell proliferation. Thus, understanding the CXCL10/CXCR3 system may be important for finding a cure. In this short review, we discuss the role of the CXCL10/CXCR3 system in type 1 diabetes and propose relevant treatment options.

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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the level of (a) CXCR3(+) (Th1) and CCR4(+) (Th2) T memory cells (b) interferon- γ inducible chemokine (IP-10)(Th1) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)(Th2), in 51 first degree relatives (FDRs) of type 1 diabetics (T1D) (17 high risk FDRs (GADA(+), IA-2(+)) and 34 low risk FDRs (GADA(-), IA-2(-))), 24 recent-onset T1D (R-T1D), and 18 healthy subjects. T memory subsets were analyzed by using four-color immunofluorescence staining and flowcytometry. IP-10 and TARC were determined by ELISA. High risk FDRs showed higher levels of CXCR3(+) and lower level of CCR4(+) T memory cells compared to low risk FDRs (64.98 ± 5.19 versus 42.13 ± 11.11; 29.46 ± 2.83 versus 41.90 ± 8.58%, resp., P < 0.001). Simultaneously, both IP-10 and TARC levels were increased in high risk versus low risk FDRs (160.12 ± 73.40 versus 105.39 ± 71.30; 438.83 ± 120.62 versus 312.04 ± 151.14 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis identified the level of CXCR3(+) T memory cells as predictors for high risk FDRs, together with high levels of IP-10. The results imply that, in FDRs, the risk for T1D might be strongly influenced by enhanced activity of Th1 and diminished activity of Th2 autoimmune response.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014:589360. DOI:10.1155/2014/589360 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: PNASpaperSI
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in particular IL-1β, IFNγ, and CXCL10, contribute to β-cell failure and loss in DM via IL-1R, IFNγR, and TLR4 signaling. IL-1 signaling deficiency reduces diabetes incidence, islet IL-1β secretion, and hyperglycemia in animal models of diabetes. Further, IL-1R antagonism improves normoglycemia and β-cell function in type 2 diabetic patients. Inhibition of lysine deacetylases (KDACi) counteracts β-cell toxicity induced by the combination of IL-1 and IFNγ and reduces diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We hypothesized that KDACi breaks an autoinflammatory circuit by differentially preventing β-cell expression of the β-cell toxic inflammatory molecules IL-1β and CXCL10 induced by single cytokines. Results: CXCL10 did not induce transcription of IL-1β mRNA. IL-1β induced β-cell IL-1β mRNA and both IL-1β and IFNγ individually induced Cxcl10 mRNA transcription. Givinostat inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-1β mRNA expression in INS-1 and rat islets and IL-1β processing in INS-1 cells. Givinostat also reduced IFNγ induced Cxcl10 transcription in INS-1 cells but not in rat islets, while IL-1β induced Cxcl10 transcription was unaffected in both. Materials and Methods: INS-1 cells and rat islets of Langerhans were exposed to IL-1β, IFNγ or CXCL10 in the presence or absence of KDACi (givinostat). Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expressions were quantified by real-time qPCR, and IL-1β processing by western blotting of cell lysates. Conclusion/Interpretation: Inhibition of β-cell IL-1β expression and processing and Cxcl10 transcription contributes to the β-cell protective actions of KDACi. In vitro β-cell destructive effects of CXCL10 are not mediated via IL-1β transcription. The differential proinflammatory actions of KDACs may be attractive novel drug targets in DM.
    Islets 11/2012; 4(6):417-22. DOI:10.4161/isl.23541 · 1.59 Impact Factor

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