The Early Effects of Tendon Transfers and Open Capsulorrhaphy on Glenohumeral Deformity in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy Surgical Technique
ABSTRACT Persistent muscle imbalance and soft-tissue contractures can lead to progressive glenohumeral joint dysplasia in patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effects of tendon transfers and open glenohumeral reduction on shoulder function and dysplasia in patients with preexisting joint deformity secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy.
Twenty-three patients with preexisting glenohumeral deformity underwent latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon transfers to the rotator cuff with concomitant musculotendinous lengthening of the pectoralis major and/or subscapularis and open glenohumeral joint reduction for the treatment of internal rotation contracture and external rotation weakness. Shoulder function was assessed with use of the modified Mallet classification system and the Active Movement Scale. Glenoid version and humeral head subluxation were quantified radiographically, and glenohumeral deformity was appropriately graded. The mean duration of clinical and radiographic follow-up was thirty-one and twenty-five months, respectively.
Clinically, all patients demonstrated improved global shoulder function, with the mean aggregate Mallet score improving from 10 points preoperatively to 18 points postoperatively (p < 0.01). The mean modified Mallet score for external rotation improved from 2 to 4 (p < 0.01). Similarly, the mean Active Movement Scale score for external rotation improved from 3 to 6 (p < 0.01). The mean Mallet hand-to-spine score improved from 1 to 2 (p < 0.01). The mean Active Movement Scale score for internal rotation remained constant at 6. Radiographically, the mean glenoid version improved from -39 degrees preoperatively to -18 degrees postoperatively (p < 0.01). The mean percentage of the humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid similarly improved from 13% to 38% (p < 0.01). The mean glenohumeral deformity score improved from 3 to 2 (p < 0.01). Nineteen (83%) of the twenty-three patients demonstrated glenohumeral remodeling; one patient had progressive worsening of glenohumeral deformity.
Tendon transfers to the rotator cuff, combined with musculotendinous lengthenings and open reduction of the glenohumeral joint, improve global shoulder function and lead to glenohumeral joint remodeling in the majority of selected patients with mild-to-moderate preexisting glenohumeral dysplasia secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy. Future study of the long-term outcomes of these procedures will help to clarify the ultimate effect on glenohumeral joint function.
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ABSTRACT: Muscle pathology resulting in internal rotation contractures in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy places abnormal stresses on the glenohumeral joint and limits global shoulder function. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes in children treated with an arthroscopic release with or without tendon transfer, the so-called arthroscopically assisted Sever-L'Episcopo procedure. Fifty children with an average age of 5.1 years who underwent an arthroscopic release with or without tendon transfer were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Mallet classification scores, whereas glenoid retroversion and posterior humeral head subluxation were measured on magnetic resonance images to quantify radiographic outcomes. Mean clinical follow-up was 30 months (range: 24 to 65 mo) and mean radiographic follow-up was 24 months (range: 11 to 42 mo). Aggregate Mallet score improved significantly from 12.6 to 16.3 (P<0.0001), with shoulder abduction from 3.4 to 3.8 (P=0.0007), shoulder external rotation from 2.2 to 3.3 (P<0.0001), hand-to-neck from 2.3 to 3.2 (P<0.0001), and hand-to-mouth from 2.3 to 3.3 (P<0.0001). Hand-to-spine Mallet score did not significantly change from preoperative (2.4) to postoperative (2.6) (P=0.1348), although 4 patients experienced a loss in internal rotation function. Forty-eight percent of children improved by at least 4 points on the total Mallet score. Glenoid retroversion improved from 25 to 14.1 degrees (P<0.0001) and percent humeral head anterior to the central axis of the scapula increased from 30.5% to 38.8% (P=0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients demonstrated glenohumeral joint remodeling on magnetic resonance imaging. No child exhibited a worsening of glenohumeral anatomy. An arthroscopic release with or without tendon transfer is effective in reducing internal rotation contractures and increasing global shoulder function. Both clinical and radiographic outcomes were significantly improved at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, in the majority of children, aggregate, abduction, and external rotation Mallet scores all increased without sacrificing internal rotation. Therapeutic Level IV.Journal of pediatric orthopedics 01/2011; 31(3):341-51. DOI:10.1097/BPO.0b013e31820cada8 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of the local demagnetizing field on the rotation magnetization processes in Co-based alloy longitudinal thin-film media was studied as a simple approach to understanding the correlation between the medium coercivity and the strength of the in-plane easy axis crystallographic texture. The rotation magnetization of a single domain particle with uniaxial anisotropy in a thin film was simulated without and with the effect of a uniform local demagnetizing field. Longitudinal thin-film media were then modeled as assemblies of non-interacting single domain particles with various easy axis distributions, and the demagnetizing field was found to decrease the in-plane coercivity as the easy axes of an increasing fraction of the grains are tilted out of the film plane. The rotational hysteresis remains a valid method of measuring the anisotropy field after considering the demagnetizing effectIEEE Transactions on Magnetics 10/1997; DOI:10.1109/20.617812 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term shoulder functional outcomes from a triangle tilt procedure on obstetric patients, who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapular deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury. We retrospectively studied long-term outcomes both functionally and anatomically in 61 patients (age ranging from 2 to 12 years). Functional movements were evaluated and scored using a modified Mallet scale at different time intervals: preoperatively, 1 year and 2 year following triangle tilt surgery. Shoulder anatomy was examined on radiologic images to evaluate the severity of shoulder deformities preoperatively and anatomical improvement after the surgery. All shoulder functional movements were significantly improved at 1 and 2 year follow-ups. Functional improvements were maintained in shoulder abduction, external rotation and hand-to-mouth movements beyond the first year, and continued in hand-to-neck and hand-to-spine movements past 2 years. Remarkable glenohumeral remodeling or reservation of glenoid congruence was observed in all patients over a mean time of 27 months postoperatively. The triangle tilt procedure, which addresses scapular and glenohumeral joint abnormalities characteristic of Erb's palsy, improves shoulder functional movements and anatomical structure in patients over the long-term.Pediatric Surgery International 04/2010; 26(4):393-9. DOI:10.1007/s00383-010-2550-4 · 1.06 Impact Factor