Influence of NOS1 on verbal intelligence and working memory in both patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects.
ABSTRACT Human and animal studies have implicated the gene NOS1 in both cognition and schizophrenia susceptibility.
To investigate whether a potential schizophrenia risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6490121) identified in a recent genome-wide association study negatively influences cognition in patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects.
A comparison of both cases and controls grouped according to NOS1 genotype (GG vs AG vs AA) on selected measures of cognition in 2 independent samples. We tested for association between NOS1 rs6490121 and cognitive functions known to be impaired in schizophrenia (IQ, episodic memory, working memory, and attentional control) in an Irish sample. We then sought to replicate the significant results in a German sample.
Unrelated patients from general adult psychiatric inpatient and outpatient services and unrelated healthy volunteers from the general population were ascertained.
Patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed schizophrenia and healthy control subjects from independent samples of Irish (cases, n = 349; controls, n = 230) and German (cases, n = 232; controls, n = 1344) nationality.
A main effect of NOS1 genotype on verbal IQ and working memory was observed in the Irish sample where the homozygous carriers of the schizophrenia risk G allele performed poorly compared with the other genotype groups. These findings were replicated in the German sample, again with the GG genotype carriers performing below other genotype groups. Post hoc analysis of additional IQ measures (full-scale and performance IQ) in the German sample revealed that NOS1 GG carriers underperformed on these measures also.
NOS1 is associated with clinically significant variation in cognition. Whether this is a mechanism by which schizophrenia risk is increased (eg, via an influence on cognitive reserve) is yet to be confirmed.
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive endophenotypes may further our understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders, and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a promising candidate gene for both cognitive function and disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of reported associations between the COMT Val158/108Met polymorphism and measures of memory and executive function. The PubMed database was searched for studies relating cognitive functions and the COMT Val158/108Met polymorphism. This enabled meta-analyses of six cognitive phenotypes (Trail Making task, verbal recall, verbal fluency, IQ score, n-back task, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Data were extracted by two reviewers and included cognitive scores by COMT genotype, publication year, diagnostic status, ancestry, proportion of male participants, and whether genotype frequencies were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found no association between COMT genotype and the majority of phenotypes. There was evidence of association with IQ score (d = .06), which did not differ significantly by ancestry, sex, average sample age, or patient status. For the n-back task, there was no robust evidence for genetic association, but the effect size was significantly larger in patient (d = .40) than nonpatient (d = -.27) populations, larger in both samples with fewer male subjects, and those of greater average age. There was also evidence of publication bias and decreasing effect sizes with later publication. Despite initially promising results, the COMT Val158/108Met polymorphism appears to have little if any association with cognitive function. Publication bias may hamper attempts to understand the genetic basis of psychological functions and psychiatric disorders.Biological psychiatry 08/2008; 64(2):137-44. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence of aberrant functional connectivity in the neuronal circuit is one of the integrative theories of the etiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that the protein and mRNA levels of the synapsin 2 (SYN2) and complexin 2 (CPLX2) genes were decreased in patients with schizophrenia. Synapsin 2 and complexin 2 are involved in synaptogenesis and the modulation of neurotransmitter release. This report presents a study of the association of polymorphisms of SYN2 and CPLX2 with schizophrenia in the Korean population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one 5-bp insertion/deletion in SYN2 and five SNPs in CPLX2 were genotyped in 154 Korean patients with schizophrenia and 133 control patients using direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. An intermarker linkage disequilibrium map was constructed for each gene. Although there was no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies of either SYN2 or CPLX2 polymorphisms between the schizophrenia and control groups, the two-way haplotype analyses revealed significant associations with the disease (P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). The three-way haplotype analyses also revealed a significant association of SYN2 with schizophrenia (P < 0.001 after Bonferroni correction). These results suggest that both SYN2 and CPLX2 may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Korean population.Behavioral and Brain Functions 08/2005; 1:15. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two recent articles in this journal made the case for the existence and importance of g and reviewed research on cognitive and psychophysical correlates of psychometric g. This review considers g from a genetic perspective. Multivariate genetic research indicates that g accounts for nearly all of the genetic variance of diverse psychometric cognitive tests (genetic g). Recent research suggests not only that elementary cognitive tasks are genetically linked to psychometric g but also that genetic g pervades these tasks. Contrary to the assumption of modularity that dominates cognitive science, genetic g exists in the mind as well as in psychometric tests.Trends in Cognitive Sciences 05/2002; 6(4):169-176. · 16.01 Impact Factor