The effect of digital cervical examination on group B streptococcal culture.
ABSTRACT We sought to evaluate whether group B streptococcus (GBS) detection is altered by the digital cervical examination.
A total of 302 women undergoing the clinical GBS culture had a digital cervical examination and a repeated GBS culture. Statistical comparison of pre-post culture results were performed with kappa and McNemar tests.
The clinical prevalence of GBS was 19.5%. Discordant results were seen in 30/302 (9.9%) paired cultures (kappa = 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.568-0.783). An initially negative GBS culture result was positive on repeated testing in 13/243 (5.3%) pairs. Initially positive cultures were negative on repeated testing in 17/59 (28.8%) pairs. Patients with discordant results had similar characteristics as the remainder of the study group. Given the observed proportion of discordant results (9.9%), the study had 80% power to detect a 5% difference between discordant pairs.
Paired GBS cultures showed a good level of agreement. The 28.8% rate of positive cultures becoming negative is clinically concerning and warrants further study.
- SourceAvailable from: mwrif.orgSex Transm Dis 03/2002; 29(2):112-3. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Canada, screening for group B Streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women is recommended at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation. Since there is normally no other indication for pelvic examination at this stage of pregnancy, women may be more comfortable performing the test themselves. We assessed the accuracy of self- sampling versus clinician sampling for GBS and women's preference for each collection method. Consecutive patients presenting between October 2003 and April 2005 to a maternity centre in Hamilton for their 35- to 37-week prenatal visit were randomly allocated to having vaginal-rectal swabs self-collected, and then collected by a clinician, or to having the swabs clinician-collected, and then self-collected. The main outcomes were prevalence of infection and sensitivity of the two methods. Other analyses compared women who refused participation in the study with those who participated, and preference for sampling method before and after conducting the tests. Of the 386 women approached, 330 (85.5%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of GBS was 17.0% (56/330) and 18.8% (62/330) in the self-obtained and clinician-obtained specimens respectively (difference =1.8%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] -2.0-6.0). Sensitivity was 87.5% (95% CI 77.0-93.8) and 96.9% (95% CI 88.7-99.8) for the self-obtained and clinician-obtained specimens respectively. Women who declined to participate in self-sampling were significantly more likely not to have completed high school and to prefer clinician sampling. Prior to testing, 79% of women preferred self-sampling or had no preference. Preference was unchanged for approximately two-thirds of women after sampling. Self-sampling for GBS is an accurate and acceptable alternative for the majority of pregnant women. Less-educated women may be hesitant to self-sample, and clinician sampling should remain an option.Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC 01/2007; 28(12):1083-8.
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ABSTRACT: Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of serious neonatal infection despite great progress in perinatal GBS disease prevention in the 1990s. In 1996, CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, published guidelines for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (CDC. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: a public health perspective. MMWR 1996;45[RR-7]:1-24). Data collected after the issuance of the 1996 guidelines prompted reevaluation of prevention strategies at a meeting of clinical and public health representatives in November 2001. This report replaces CDC's 1996 guidelines. The recommendations are based on available evidence and expert opinion where sufficient evidence was lacking. Although many of the recommendations in the 2002 guidelines are the same as those in 1996, they include some key changes: * Recommendation of universal prenatal screening for vaginal and rectal GBS colonization of all pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation, based on recent documentation in a large retrospective cohort study of a strong protective effect of this culture-based screening strategy relative to the risk-based strategy * Updated prophylaxis regimens for women with penicillin allergy * Detailed instruction on prenatal specimen collection and expanded methods of GBS culture processing, including instructions on antimicrobial susceptibility testing * Recommendation against routine intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-colonized women undergoing planned cesarean deliveries who have not begun labor or had rupture of membranes * A suggested algorithm for management of patients with threatened preterm delivery * An updated algorithm for management of newborns exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis Although universal screening for GBS colonization is anticipated to result in further reductions in the burden of GBS disease, the need to monitor for potential adverse consequences of intrapartum antibiotic use, such as emergence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance or increased incidence or severity of non-GBS neonatal pathogens, continues, and intrapartum antibiotics are still viewed as an interim strategy until GBS vaccines achieve licensure.MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 09/2002; 51(RR-11):1-22.