A cost-effectiveness model comparing rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate with enoxaparin sodium as thromboprophylaxis after total hip and total knee replacement in the irish healthcare setting.
ABSTRACT It has been estimated that major orthopaedic surgery has the highest risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) when compared with other surgery. Two new orally active anticoagulants have recently become licensed in Ireland for the primary prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR). Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) is a direct factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa) is a prodrug of the active compound dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin.
To evaluate the cost effectiveness of rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate compared with enoxaparin sodium for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective THR and TKR in the Irish healthcare setting.
The evaluation was conducted from the Irish health-payer perspective. A static decision-tree model was developed with a 180-day post-surgery time horizon. Separate models for the disease states THR and TKR were run to accommodate the different venous thromboembolism risks associated with each procedure. Outcome measures were QALYs and life-years gained (LYG). Costs were valued in euro, year 2008 values. One-way sensitivity analysis of all probabilities in the model was performed. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using second-order Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the probability of cost effectiveness at euro 45,000 per QALY threshold.
In the THR base-case model, rivaroxaban dominated both dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin sodium. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for dabigatran etexilate relative to enoxaparin were euro 23,934 per LYG and euro 17,835 per QALY. In the TKR base-case model, rivaroxaban dominated both dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin sodium. Dabigatran etexilate also dominated enoxaparin sodium. In the one-way sensitivity analysis, the THR model was robust to all but four probability variations; the TKR model was robust to all variations. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of euro 45,000 per QALY, the probability that rivaroxaban was the most cost-effective strategy after THR was 39%, followed by dabigatran etexilate at 32% and enoxaparin sodium at 29%. The probability that rivaroxaban was the most cost-effective strategy after TKR was 46%, followed by dabigatran etexilate at 30% and enoxaparin sodium at 24%.
Base-case analysis indicates that when both rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate are compared with enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban is the less costly and more effective option after THR and TKR. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates that rivaroxaban is the most cost-effective strategy at a cost-effectiveness threshold of euro 45,000 per QALY; however, there is uncertainty regarding this strategy being more cost effective than dabigatran etexilate when both are compared with enoxaparin sodium.
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ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has a significant impact on healthcare costs but is largely preventable with anticoagulant prophylaxis using low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), such as enoxaparin or dalteparin. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate are two new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were both compared with enoxaparin in separate trials. A decision analytic model with a healthcare and national payer perspective over a five-year time horizon was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the NOACs for VTE prophylaxis after total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) in France, Italy and Spain. Efficacy and safety data were obtained from randomised controlled trials of rivaroxaban vs enoxaparin and an indirect statistical comparison for rivaroxaban vs dabigatran. Rivaroxaban demonstrated dominance across all comparisons, indications and countries. In THR, total per-patient costs were reduced by up to €160 in the enoxaparin comparison and €115 in the dabigatran comparison, respectively. In addition, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were increased by up to 0.0011 and 0.0012 in each comparison, respectively. Similarly, total costs were reduced in TKR by up to €137 and €28 in the enoxaparin and dabigatran comparisons, respectively. The total number of QALYs was increased by up to 0.0014 in the enoxaparin comparison and 0.0005 in the dabigatran comparison. The results were driven by costs since the incremental benefits were minimal. Rivaroxaban use could result in substantial healthcare cost savings and improved quality of life. The results are applicable across three European countries with differing healthcare systems so, potentially, could be generalised to a much wider population.Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2013; 110(5). · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. The aims of this study were to analyse the efficacy and safety of orally administered dabigatran in prostate cancer patients who have undergone robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and to analyse the effects of RALP on selected markers of coagulation activity. Material and methods. Data were collected prospectively on the first 400 patients who underwent RALP at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 2009 and 2011. As thromboprophylaxis, intermittent compression devices were used in association with anaesthesia. Dalteparin sodium at 2500 IU was administered on the preoperative evening and at 5000 IU daily until discharge. Then patients were prescribed 220 mg dabigatran etexilate once daily for the next 15 days. Bleeding and thromboembolic complications were recorded. A set of routine coagulation analyses was undertaken in 61 patients preoperatively, on the first, second and eight postoperative days. Results. One patient with obesity- and cancer-related risk factors developed venous thromboembolism 18 days after the operation. Nine patients (2.3%) had postoperative blood loss or bleeds, eight patients required blood transfusions and three underwent reoperation before dabigatran administration. Increased fibrinogen, factor VIII, d-dimer and thrombocytosis were observed postoperatively, reflecting coagulation activity. Conclusions. RALP activates coagulation, and thromboprophylaxis for high-risk patients even after minimally invasive surgery may be beneficial. Orally administered dabigatran after discharge from hospital appears safe for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after RALP.Scandinavian journal of urology. 07/2013;
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness, as assessed by risk of bleeding and incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), of administering delayed low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study of 210 consecutive patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was undertaken. The patients were randomized into two groups: one of which was managed according to a standard LMWH program (LMWH-s group) and the other with delayed LMWH (LMWH-p). LMWH was initiated 12 h after wound closure in the LMWH-s group, and 24 h after wound closure in the LMWH-p group. The total blood loss in the first three postoperative days was calculated and all complications were recorded. The mean total blood loss was 435 and 387 mL in the LMWH-s group and LMWH-p group, respectively (p < 0.01). No significant difference in the incidence of symptomatic DVT was observed. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.29 days in the LMWH-s group and 6.56 days in the LMWH-p group (p < 0.05). After total knee arthroplasty, LMWH-p is safer for bleeding than LMWH-s and equally effective concerning prevention of DVT.Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 02/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor