A cost-effectiveness model comparing rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate with enoxaparin sodium as thromboprophylaxis after total hip and total knee replacement in the irish healthcare setting.
ABSTRACT It has been estimated that major orthopaedic surgery has the highest risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) when compared with other surgery. Two new orally active anticoagulants have recently become licensed in Ireland for the primary prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR). Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) is a direct factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa) is a prodrug of the active compound dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin.
To evaluate the cost effectiveness of rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate compared with enoxaparin sodium for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective THR and TKR in the Irish healthcare setting.
The evaluation was conducted from the Irish health-payer perspective. A static decision-tree model was developed with a 180-day post-surgery time horizon. Separate models for the disease states THR and TKR were run to accommodate the different venous thromboembolism risks associated with each procedure. Outcome measures were QALYs and life-years gained (LYG). Costs were valued in euro, year 2008 values. One-way sensitivity analysis of all probabilities in the model was performed. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using second-order Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the probability of cost effectiveness at euro 45,000 per QALY threshold.
In the THR base-case model, rivaroxaban dominated both dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin sodium. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for dabigatran etexilate relative to enoxaparin were euro 23,934 per LYG and euro 17,835 per QALY. In the TKR base-case model, rivaroxaban dominated both dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin sodium. Dabigatran etexilate also dominated enoxaparin sodium. In the one-way sensitivity analysis, the THR model was robust to all but four probability variations; the TKR model was robust to all variations. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of euro 45,000 per QALY, the probability that rivaroxaban was the most cost-effective strategy after THR was 39%, followed by dabigatran etexilate at 32% and enoxaparin sodium at 29%. The probability that rivaroxaban was the most cost-effective strategy after TKR was 46%, followed by dabigatran etexilate at 30% and enoxaparin sodium at 24%.
Base-case analysis indicates that when both rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate are compared with enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban is the less costly and more effective option after THR and TKR. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates that rivaroxaban is the most cost-effective strategy at a cost-effectiveness threshold of euro 45,000 per QALY; however, there is uncertainty regarding this strategy being more cost effective than dabigatran etexilate when both are compared with enoxaparin sodium.
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Article: Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. Some tests are good for "ruling in" pulmonary embolism (e.g., helical CT) and some tests are good for "ruling out" pulmonary embolism (e.g., D-dimer); others are able to do both but are often nondiagnostic (e.g., ventilation-perfusion lung scanning). For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial diagnostic test should be guided by clinical assessment of the probability of pulmonary embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. This selective approach to testing enables pulmonary embolism to be diagnosed or excluded in a minimum number of steps. However, even with the appropriate use of combinations of noninvasive tests, it is often not possible to definitively diagnose or exclude pulmonary embolism at initial presentation. Most of these patients can be managed safely without treatment or pulmonary angiography by repeating ultrasound testing of the proximal veins after one and 2 weeks to detect evolving deep vein thrombosis. Helical CT and MRI are rapidly improving as diagnostic tests for pulmonary embolism and are expected to become central to its evaluation.Canadian Medical Association Journal 02/2003; 168(2):183-94. · 6.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Information about the variation in the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and in prophylaxis practices around the world is scarce. The ENDORSE (Epidemiologic International Day for the Evaluation of Patients at Risk for Venous Thromboembolism in the Acute Hospital Care Setting) study is a multinational cross-sectional survey designed to assess the prevalence of VTE risk in the acute hospital care setting, and to determine the proportion of at-risk patients who receive effective prophylaxis. All hospital inpatients aged 40 years or over admitted to a medical ward, or those aged 18 years or over admitted to a surgical ward, in 358 hospitals across 32 countries were assessed for risk of VTE on the basis of hospital chart review. The 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based consensus guidelines were used to assess VTE risk and to determine whether patients were receiving recommended prophylaxis. 68 183 patients were enrolled; 30 827 (45%) were categorised as surgical, and 37 356 (55%) as medical. On the basis of ACCP criteria, 35 329 (51.8%; 95% CI 51.4-52.2; between-country range 35.6-72.6) patients were judged to be at risk for VTE, including 19 842 (64.4%; 63.8-64.9; 44.1-80.2) surgical patients and 15 487 (41.5%; 41.0-42.0; 21.1-71.2) medical patients. Of the surgical patients at risk, 11 613 (58.5%; 57.8-59.2; 0.2-92.1) received ACCP-recommended VTE prophylaxis, compared with 6119 (39.5%; 38.7-40.3; 3.1-70.4) at-risk medical patients. A large proportion of hospitalised patients are at risk for VTE, but there is a low rate of appropriate prophylaxis. Our data reinforce the rationale for the use of hospital-wide strategies to assess patients' VTE risk and to implement measures that ensure that at-risk patients receive appropriate prophylaxis.The Lancet 03/2008; 371(9610):387-94. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The scale of health state quality that should be used to compute quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) ranges from 0 (death) to 1.0 (excellent health); this is called the "Q" scale. But many cost-utility analyses (CUAs) in the literature use the upper anchor of the scale to denote only the absence of the particular health condition under investigation, and weight the disease state proportional to this endpoint; these are called "q" scales. Computations using q-scale health-state weights ignore the fact that the average patient is still subject to chronic and acute conditions comorbid with the condition being analyzed; the absence of a particular condition is not in general the same as excellent health, i.e., the Q scale is longer than a q scale. CUAs based on q scales yield "qALYs." Incremental $/qALY ratios are generally lower than $/QALY ratios; in the example presented, $/qALY must be inflated by about 15% to yield $/QALY. Other CUAs correctly weight disease states using the Q scale, but erroneously assign a quality weight of 1.0 to absence of the disease in the CUA computations. The results of such analyses are called "NP-QALYs," as the correction factor to compute QALYs is not a simple proportional adjustment. The authors suggest that analysis doing cost-utility analyses without access to primary data from treated patients use average age-specific health-related quality-of-life weights from population-based studies to represent the state of not having a particular disease. Consumers of CUAs should closely examine the nature of the QALYs in any published analyses before making decisions based on their results.Medical Decision Making 01/1997; 17(3):276-84. · 2.89 Impact Factor