Physical fitness in children with end-stage renal disease.
ABSTRACT Medical advances have allowed the majority of children with ESRD to survive into adulthood. As a result, more attention is being focused on improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children with ESRD. However, most pediatric ESRD HRQOL studies have highlighted on the psychosocial effects of ESRD, with less attention paid to the physical effects. A few studies have recently measured exercise capacity in children with ESRD in the last 5 years. This article reviews studies that detail the physical components of HRQOL as well as other studies that have started to document the exercise capacity of children with ESRD.
SourceAvailable from: Trude Reinfjell[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to assess the mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and their parents after renal transplantation (TX) compared to healthy controls and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to identify possible health status variables associated with impaired mental health and HRQOL. Thirty-eight TX children with a median age of 13 (range 3-19) years were investigated. Mental health was assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-20). Each mother's own mental health and QOL were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS). Forty children with ALL [median age 11 (8.5-15.4) years] and 42 healthy children [median age 11 (8.9- 15) years] served as controls. Treadmill exercise results from 22 of the 38 patients were included in the analysis. TX children showed significantly higher levels of mental health problems and lower HRQOL at 2 to 16 years after transplantation compared to both control groups. Body mass index and maximal oxygen uptake (n = 22/38) were significant predictors of child mental health (SDQ) and child QOL (PedsQL), respectively. Based on these results, we suggest that rehabilitation after TX should include a focus on physical activity and QOL to reduce interconnected physical and psychological morbidity in kidney TX children.Pediatric Nephrology 04/2011; 26(10):1881-92. DOI:10.1007/s00467-011-1887-9 · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of inactivity and poor physical fitness. The aim of this study was to assess the main correlates of exercise capacity in a cohort of children and young adults on chronic HD. Twelve patients on chronic HD (median age 15.6 years; range 9.1-24.2) underwent a 6-minute walking test (WT), spirometry, a 1-minute chair stand test, and the measurement of lower extremity strength. Demographic data, anthropometry (dry weight, height, body mass index, and skinfold thickness, all expressed as standard deviation scores [SDS]), biochemistry (serum albumin, hemoglobin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, bicarbonate), bioimpedance analysis, HD adequacy indices (spKt/V and eKt/V), left ventricular mass index, and medications were also recorded. There was a significant correlation among the distance covered during the WT (median 552 m, range 186-670), forced vital capacity (87.8% of predicted, range 49.7-136), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (86.7%, range 54.7-126.7), and peak expiratory flow (75.5%, 49.7-105.1). All of these indices positively correlated with the weight SDS (r 0.69-0.85), pre-HD serum creatinine (0.57-0.77), and serum albumin (0.60-0.77) and negatively correlated with weekly erythropoietin dose per kilogram of body weight (from -0.64 to -0.83), with P values ranging from <.05 to <.0005. Lower extremity strength (median 11.5 kg, range 3-15) positively correlated with the number of stands at the chair stand test (median 33, range 18-47; r 0.73, P < .05) and serum albumin (r 0.83, P < .01). Distance at the WT, forced vital capacity, lower extremity strength, and the number of stands at the chair stand test all negatively correlated with C-reactive protein levels (r from -0.81 to -0.67, P < .05). Our findings show that protein-energy wasting and chronic inflammation are strongly correlated with the exercise capacity of children and young adults on chronic HD.Journal of Renal Nutrition 06/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1053/j.jrn.2013.04.006 · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is well known that adults suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience muscle wasting and excessive fatigue, which results in a reduced exercise capacity and muscle weakness compared to their healthy counterparts, but research suggests that this can be improved through exercise. There is very limited data available regarding exercise tolerance in children with CKD and even less on the effects of exercise training programs. However, the available evidence does suggest that like adults, children also suffer from poor exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength, although the reasons for these limitations remain unclear. Studies that have attempted to implement exercise training programs in pediatric CKD populations have experienced high dropout rates, suggesting that the approach used to implement such programs in children needs to be different from the approach used for adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding exercise capacity and muscle strength in children with CKD, the methods used to perform these assessments, and the possible causes of physical limitations. The results of exercise training studies, and the potential reasons as to why training programs have proved relatively unsuccessful are also discussed.Pediatric Nephrology 02/2011; 27(2):165-72. DOI:10.1007/s00467-010-1753-1 · 2.88 Impact Factor