Expression levels of pituitary tumor transforming 1 and glutathione-S-transferase theta 3 are associated with the individual susceptibility to D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity.
ABSTRACT Although drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is frequently observed, individual variation in the susceptibility to DILI is hard to predict. Intrinsic genetic variation is considered a key element for this variation but little is known about the identity of the genes associated with DILI. In this study, pre-biopsy method was applied to uncover the key genes for D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury and a cause and effect study was conducted to elucidate the correlation between the expression of uncovered genes and GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. To identify the genes determining the susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, we compared the innate gene expression profiles in the liver tissue pre-biopsied before GalN treatment of the SD rats susceptible and resistant to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, using microarray. Eight genes including Pttg1, Ifit1 and Gstt3 were lower or higher in the susceptible animals than the resistant and RT-PCR analysis confirmed it. To determine if these genes are associated with the susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity indeed, expression levels were measured using real-time PCR in a new set of animals and the correlation with GalN-induced hepatotoxicity were analyzed. Notably, the expression of Pttg1 was significantly correlated with the severity of GalN-induced hepatotoxicity (p<0.01) and the animals with lowest and highest level of Gstt3 turned out to be the most susceptible and resistant, respectively, demonstrating that the expression of Pttg1 and Gstt3 could predict inter-individual susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. More importantly, this study showed the utility of pre-biopsy method in the identification of the gene for the chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a serious adverse effect with high morbidity and mortality rates but substantial individual to individual variation is observed in its severity. Here we sought to discover factors determining the susceptibility to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity by comparing the global gene expression profile (27,342 genes) in pre-dose blood before APAP administration between susceptible and resistant animals (N=5) grouped based on the severity of hepatotoxicity. Forty one genes were expressed differently (> 1.5 fold change and p<0.05) between susceptible and resistant groups. Among them, protein kinase (cAMP-dependent) inhibitor alpha, Pkia, a member of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor family, was found to be most significantly and highly expressed in susceptible animals (∼3.5 fold with p<0.01). To investigate the effects of PKA inhibition on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, we pre-treated H-89, a potent and selective inhibitor of PKA, prior to APAP administration in vivo. As a result, H-89 pretreatment significantly potentiated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity as determined by increased serum alanine transaminase. These results were further corroborated by the exacerbation of APAP-induced glutathione depletion, suppression of antioxidant enzyme system, superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1, and peroxynitrite generation in liver following H-89 pretreatment, reflecting that PKA may be involved in the protection against, or attenuation of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and Pkia can be employed to screen individuals susceptible to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.Toxicology Letters 06/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is used widely for treatment of a variety of cancer diseases. Recently, however, the use of cisplatin is restricted because of its adverse effects such as hepatotoxicity. There is no study with current proteomics technology to evaluate cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, even if some studies have reported on the hepatotoxicity. In this study, proteomic as well as genomic analyses have been used for identification of proteins and genes that respond to cisplatin treatment in rat primary hepatocytes. To investigate the hepatotoxic effects of cisplatin, rat primary hepatocytes were treated with an IC(20) concentration for 24 h. From proteomic analysis based on label-free quantitation strategy, cisplatin induced 76 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated proteins among 325 distinct proteins. In the mRNA level, genomic analysis revealed 72 up-regulated and 385 down-regulated genes in the cisplatin-treated group. Based on these two analyses, 19 pathways were commonly altered, whereas seven pathways were identified only by proteomic analysis, and 19 pathways were identified only by genomic analysis. Overall, this study explained the mechanism of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity with two points of view: well known pathways including drug metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and glycolysis/TCA cycle and little known pathways including urea cycle and inflammation metabolism, for hepatotoxicity of other toxic agents. Up-regulated proteins detected by proteomic analysis in the cisplatin-treated group: FBP1 (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 1), FASN (fatty acid synthase), CAT (catalase), PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin-1), HSPD1 (60-kDa heat shock protein), MDH2 (malate dehydrogenase 2), and ARG1 (arginase 1), and also down-regulated proteins in the cisplatin-treated group: TPM1 (tropomyosin 1), TPM3 (tropomyosin 3), and CTSB (cathepsin B), were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, up-regulated mRNAs detected by microarray analysis in the cisplatin-treated group: GSTA2, GSTT2, YC2, TXNRD1, CYP2E1, CYP2C13, CYP2D1, ALDH17, ARG1, ARG2, and IL-6, and also down-regulated mRNAs: CYP2C12, CYP26B1, TPM1, and TPM3, were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. In case of PRDX1, FASN, and ARG1, they were further confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. Through the integrated proteomic and genomic approaches, the present study provides the first pathway map related to cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, which may provide new insight into the mechanism of hepatotoxicity.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 01/2012; 11(1):M111.010884. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability of viruses to subvert host pathways is central in disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, a critical role for the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) in counteracting host immune factors during viral infection has emerged. This counteraction is commonly achieved by the expression of viral proteins capable of sequestering host ubiquitin E3 ligases and their regulators. In particular, many viruses hijack members of the Cullin-RING E3 Ligase (CRL) family. Viruses interact in many ways with CRLs in order to impact their ligase activity; one key recurring interaction involves re-directing CRL complexes to degrade host targets that are otherwise not degraded within host cells. Removal of host immune factors by this mechanism creates a more amenable cellular environment for viral propagation. To date, a small number of target host factors have been identified, many of which are degraded via a CRL-proteasome pathway. Substantial effort within the field is ongoing to uncover the identities of further host proteins targeted in this fashion and the underlying mechanisms driving their turnover by the UPS. Elucidation of these targets and mechanisms will provide appealing anti-viral therapeutic opportunities. This review is focused on the many methods used by viruses to perturb host CRLs, focusing on substrate sequestration and viral regulation of E3 activity.Biomolecules. 12/2014; 4(4):897-930.