Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin.
ABSTRACT Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize l-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total l-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in l-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that l-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to NOS2, which is a major source of NO production in the inflamed airway, although arginase inhibition may also be affecting the turnover of arginine by the other NOS isoforms, NOS1 and NOS3. The increased l-arginine content in the airway compartment of mice treated with nor-NOHA may directly or indirectly, through NOS2, control arginase expression both in response to OVA exposure and at a basal level.
Article: Nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors induce airway hyperresponsiveness in the guinea pig in vivo and in vitro. Role of the epithelium.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The administration by aerosol of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitors, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or Ng-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), to spontaneously breathing anesthetized guinea pigs resulted in a significant enhancement of lung resistance (RL) after increasing intravenous doses of histamine. The maximal response was increased (p < 0.01) by 126% (L-NAME) and 282% (L-NMMA) compared with the control groups. This effect was inhibited by giving an aerosol of the NO precursor L-arginine (L-Arg) but not by its inactive enantiomer D-arginine (D-Arg). Perfusion through the lumen of guinea pig tracheal tubes in vitro with nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors (120 microM) resulted in a significant increase in basal tone, suggesting a role for NO in the maintenance of basal tone. In addition, the histamine concentration-response curve was significantly shifted upward: the maximal response was increased (p < 0.01) by 335% (L-NAME) and 250% (L-NMMA) compared with the control group. This effect was concentration dependently inhibited by coincubation with L-Arg (120, 200, and 400 microM), but not with D-Arg (200 microM). Furthermore, removal of the epithelium resulted in an upward shift in the histamine concentration-response curve: the maximal response was increased by 185%. However, incubation with L-NAME did not further increase tracheal responsiveness to histamine, but addition of L-Arg (360 microM), when a plateau was reached, relaxed the tissues to control values. Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition did not change the responsiveness of intact tissues in vitro after intraluminal stimulation with leukotriene D4, serotonin, or the cholinergic agonist arecoline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)The American review of respiratory disease 10/1993; 148(3):727-34. · 10.19 Impact Factor