Deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy in endometrial carcinoma: a reproducible and valid prognostic marker in a routine diagnostic setting.
ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to investigate the prognostic impact of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ploidy in endometrial carcinoma in a routine diagnostic series as compared with a research series.
We studied a population-based series of 363 endometrial carcinomas prospectively collected, with long and complete follow-up. The prognostic value of DNA ploidy was investigated in a routine diagnostic series (n=262) and compared with the results from a previous research series (n=101).
The proportion of DNA aneuploid tumors was 21% in the research series and 25% in the routine diagnostic series (P=NS). In both series, DNA aneuploidy was significantly correlated to higher age at diagnosis, nonendometrioid subtype, and high histologic grade. Patients with DNA aneuploid tumors had significantly poorer survival, adjusted for established clinicopathologic prognostic factors.
DNA ploidy estimation in endometrial carcinoma adds independent prognostic information in a routine diagnostic setting.
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the prognostic importance of DNA ploidy in stage I and II endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the endometrium with a focus on DNA index. High-resolution DNA ploidy analysis was carried out in tumor material from 937 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I and II EAC of the endometrium. Patients with diploid (N = 728), aneuploid tumor with DNA index ≤ 1.20 (N = 118), aneuploid tumors with DNA index >1.20 (N = 39) and tetraploid tumor (N = 52) had 5-year recurrence rates 8%, 14%, 20% and 12%, respectively. Patients with aneuploid tumor with DNA index >1.20 had a poorer 5-year progression-free survival (67%) and overall survival (72%) compared with the patients with aneuploid tumor with DNA index ≤ 1.20 (81% and 89%, respectively). Aneuploid tumors with DNA index ≤ 1.20 relapsed mainly in the vagina and pelvis, whereas aneuploid tumors with DNA index >1.20 relapsed predominantly outside pelvis. The recurrence risk for the patients with aneuploid tumor is higher than the patients with diploid tumor in EAC of the endometrium. Based on DNA index with cut-off 1.20, aneuploid tumors can be separated into two subgroups with different recurrence pattern and survival.Annals of Oncology 09/2011; 23(5):1178-84. · 7.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most endometrial carcinomas are diagnosed at an early stage. Still, 15-20% of these carcinomas recur with limited effect of systemic therapies in metastatic disease. Improved ability to target surgical and systemic therapies to well selected patient populations will increase the likelihood of benefits. Retrospective studies have identified several markers for lymph-node metastasis and poor prognosis. No new targeted treatments are available in the clinic, but recent comprehensive molecular characterisations of tumours have identified drugs targeting the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 as promising for further studies, also reflected in current clinical trials investigating endometrial carcinoma. A more systematic approach to integration of biomarkers in surgical trials and clinical trials of therapeutics, earlier characterisation and standardisation of diagnostic imaging and biomarker assessment, and prospective implementation studies are needed for clinical implementation. We summarise the present knowledge regarding biomarkers in endometrial carcinoma, assessing how such markers could be applied to address key clinical challenges for the treatment of this disease.The Lancet Oncology 08/2012; 13(8):e353-61. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer incidence is continuing to rise in the wake of the current ageing and obesity epidemics. Much of the risk for endometrial cancer development is influenced by the environment and lifestyle. Accumulating evidence suggests that the epigenome serves as the interface between the genome and the environment and that hypermethylation of stem cell polycomb group target genes is an epigenetic hallmark of cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of epigenetic factors in endometrial cancer development. Epigenome-wide methylation analysis of >27,000 CpG sites in endometrial cancer tissue samples (n = 64) and control samples (n = 23) revealed that HAND2 (a gene encoding a transcription factor expressed in the endometrial stroma) is one of the most commonly hypermethylated and silenced genes in endometrial cancer. A novel integrative epigenome-transcriptome-interactome analysis further revealed that HAND2 is the hub of the most highly ranked differential methylation hotspot in endometrial cancer. These findings were validated using candidate gene methylation analysis in multiple clinical sample sets of tissue samples from a total of 272 additional women. Increased HAND2 methylation was a feature of premalignant endometrial lesions and was seen to parallel a decrease in RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, women with high endometrial HAND2 methylation in their premalignant lesions were less likely to respond to progesterone treatment. HAND2 methylation analysis of endometrial secretions collected using high vaginal swabs taken from women with postmenopausal bleeding specifically identified those patients with early stage endometrial cancer with both high sensitivity and high specificity (receiver operating characteristics area under the curve = 0.91 for stage 1A and 0.97 for higher than stage 1A). Finally, mice harbouring a Hand2 knock-out specifically in their endometrium were shown to develop precancerous endometrial lesions with increasing age, and these lesions also demonstrated a lack of PTEN expression. HAND2 methylation is a common and crucial molecular alteration in endometrial cancer that could potentially be employed as a biomarker for early detection of endometrial cancer and as a predictor of treatment response. The true clinical utility of HAND2 DNA methylation, however, requires further validation in prospective studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.PLoS Medicine 11/2013; 10(11):e1001551. · 15.25 Impact Factor