Human actin mutations associated with hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies demonstrate distinct thin filament regulatory properties in vitro

Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Vermont, College of Medicine, 149 Beaumont Drive, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (Impact Factor: 5.22). 09/2009; 48(2):286-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.09.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Two cardiomyopathic mutations were expressed in human cardiac actin, using a Baculovirus/insect cell system; E99K is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy whereas R312H is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypothesis that the divergent phenotypes of these two cardiomyopathies are associated with fundamental differences in the molecular mechanics and thin filament regulation of the underlying actin mutation was tested using the in vitro motility and laser trap assays. In the presence of troponin (Tn) and tropomyosin (Tm), beta-cardiac myosin moved both E99K and R312H thin filaments at significantly (p<0.05) slower velocities than wild type (WT) at maximal Ca(++). At submaximal Ca(++), R312H thin filaments demonstrated significantly increased Ca(++) sensitivity (pCa(50)) when compared to WT. Velocity as a function of ATP concentration revealed similar ATP binding rates but slowed ADP release rates for the two actin mutants compared to WT. Single molecule laser trap experiments performed using both unregulated (i.e. actin) and regulated thin filaments in the absence of Ca(++) revealed that neither actin mutation significantly affected the myosin's unitary step size (d) or duration of strong actin binding (t(on)) at 20 microM ATP. However, the frequency of individual strong-binding events in the presence of Tn and Tm, was significantly lower for E99K than WT at comparable myosin surface concentrations. The cooperativity of a second myosin head binding to the thin filament was also impaired by E99K. In conclusion, E99K inhibits the activation of the thin filament by myosin strong-binding whereas R312H demonstrates enhanced calcium activation.

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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant WT human cardiac actin (WT actin) was expressed using the baculovirus/insect cell expression system, purified, and used to reconstitute the thin-filament of bovine cardiac muscle fibers, together with bovine cardiac tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn). Effects of [Ca(2+)], [ATP], [phosphate] and [ADP] on tension and tension transients were studied at 25°C by using sinusoidal analysis, and the results were compared with those of native fibers and fibers reconstituted with purified bovine cardiac actin (BVC actin). In actin filament reconstituted fibers (without Tm/Tn), those reconstituted with WT actin showed exactly the same active tension as those reconstituted with purified BVC actin (WT: 0.75±0.06T0, N=11; BVC: 0.73±0.07T0, N=12, where T0 is tension of original fibers before extraction). After Tm/Tn reconstitution, fibers reconstituted with WT actin generated 0.85±0.06T0 (N=11) compared to 0.98±0.04T0 (N=12) recovered by those reconstituted with BVC actin. In the presence of Tm/Tn, WT actin reconstituted fibers showed exactly the same Ca(2+) sensitivity as those of the native fibers and BVC actin reconstituted fibers (pCa50: native fibers: 5.69±0.01, N=10; WT: 5.69±0.02, N=11; BVC: 5.68±0.02, N=12). Sinusoidal analysis showed that the cross-bridge kinetics were the same among native fibers, BVC actin reconstituted fibers, and WT actin reconstituted fibers, followed by reconstitution of Tm/Tn. These results demonstrate that baculovirus/insect cell expressed actin has no significant differences from tissue purified actin and can be used for thin-filament reconstitution assays. One hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) causing actin mutant A331P actin was also expressed and studied similarly, and the results were compared to those of the WT actin. In the reconstituted fibers, A331P significantly decreased the tension both in the absence of Tm/Tn (0.55±0.03T0, N=13) and in their presence (0.65±0.02T0, N=13) compared to those of the WT (0.75±0.06T0 and 0.85±0.06T0, respectively, N=11). A331P also showed decreased pCa50 (5.57±0.03, N=13) compared to that of WT (5.69±0.02, N=11). The cross-bridge kinetics and its distribution were similar between WT and A331P actin reconstituted fibers, indicating that force/cross-bridge was decreased by A331P. In conclusion, A331P causes a weakened cross-bridge force, which leads to a decreased active tension, reduces left-ventricular ejection fraction, and eventually results in the HCM phenotype.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2014; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.04.014 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human cardiac actin mutants E99K and A230V were expressed with baculovirus/insect cells and used to reconstitute the thin-filament of bovine cardiac (BVC) muscle fibers, together with tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) purified from bovine ventricles. Effects of [Ca(2+)], [ATP], and [phosphate] on tension and its transients were studied at 25°C. In the absence of Tm/Tn, both mutants significantly decreased the tension of actin filament reconstituted fibers (WT: 0.75±0.06 T0, E99K: 0.58±0.04 T0, A230V: 0.58±0.03 T0), where T0 is active tension of native fibers (T0=26.9±1.1kPa, N=41), indicating diminished actin-myosin interactions. However, in the presence of Tm and Tn, WT, E99K, and A230V recovered tension (0.85±0.06 T0, 0.89±0.06 T0, and 0.85±0.05 T0, respectively), demonstrating the compensatory effect of Tm/Tn. Ca(2+) sensitivity (pCa50) increased (5.59±0.02, 5.80±0.03, 5.77±0.03, respectively) and cooperativity (nH) decreased (2.6±0.3, 1.87±0.21, 1.60±0.11, respectively). The kinetic constants of the cross-bridge cycle were deduced using sinusoidal analysis. E99K did not show any significant changes in any of the kinetic constants compared to those of WT. A230V caused a decrease in K1 (ATP association constant), k2 and k-2 (rate constants of the cross-bridge detachment step). The cross-bridge distribution was similar among WT, E99K, and A230V. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that the first step of HCM pathogenesis with E99K is increased pCa50 and decreased nH, which result in larger tension during partial activation to cause a diastolic problem. The effect on nH is more severe with A230V. In addition, A230V has a problem of decreased cross-bridge kinetics, which affects the normal functions of the cross-bridge cycle and may contribute to the first step of the HCM pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 11/2014; 79C:123-132. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.10.014 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular myosin (beta Mys) is the motor protein in cardiac muscle generating force using ATP hydrolysis free energy to translate actin. In the cardiac muscle sarcomere, myosin and actin filaments interact cyclically and undergo rapid relative translation facilitated by the low duty cycle motor. It contrasts with high duty cycle processive myosins for which persistent actin association is the priority. The only pharmaceutical beta Mys activator, omecamtive mecarbil (OM), upregulates cardiac contractility in vivo and is undergoing testing for heart failure therapy. In vitro beta Mys step-size, motility velocity, and actin-activated myosin ATPase were measured to determine duty cycle in the absence and presence of OM. A new parameter, the relative step-frequency, was introduced and measured to characterize beta Mys motility due to the involvement of its three unitary step-sizes. Step-size and relative step-frequency were measured using the Qdot assay. OM decreases motility velocity 10-fold without affecting step-size, indicating a large increase in duty cycle converting beta Mys to a near processive myosin. The OM conversion dramatically increases force and modestly increases power over the native beta Mys. Contrasting motility modification due to OM with that from the natural myosin activator, specific beta Mys phosphorylation, provides insight into their respective activation mechanisms and indicates the boilerplate screening characteristics desired for pharmaceutical beta Mys activators. New analytics introduced here for the fast and efficient Qdot motility assay create a promising method for high-throughput screening of motor proteins and their modulators.
    Biochemistry 07/2014; 53(32). DOI:10.1021/bi500730t · 3.19 Impact Factor


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