Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Programs Controlling for HIV Infection, Tuberculosis, and Chronic Viral Hepatitis
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop: E-46, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 10/2009; 99 Suppl 2:S333-9. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.158170
Among vulnerable populations during an influenza pandemic are persons with or at risk for HIV infection, tuberculosis, or chronic viral hepatitis. HIV-infected persons have higher rates of hospitalization, prolonged illness, and increased mortality from influenza compared with the general population. Persons with tuberculosis and chronic viral hepatitis may also be at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza because of altered immunity and chronic illness. These populations also face social and structural barriers that will be exacerbated by a pandemic. Existing infrastructure should be expanded and pandemic planning should include preparations to reduce the risks for these populations.
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ABSTRACT: Protecting vulnerable populations from pandemic influenza is a strategic imperative. The US national strategy for pandemic influenza preparedness and response assigns roles to governments, businesses, civic and community-based organizations, individuals, and families. Because influenza is highly contagious, inadequate preparedness or untimely response in vulnerable populations increases the risk of infection for the general population. Recent public health emergencies have reinforced the importance of preparedness and the challenges of effective response among vulnerable populations. We explore definitions and determinants of vulnerable, at-risk, and special populations and highlight approaches for ensuring that pandemic influenza preparedness includes these populations and enables them to respond appropriately. We also provide an overview of population-specific and cross-cutting articles in this theme issue on influenza preparedness for vulnerable populations.American Journal of Public Health 10/2009; 99 Suppl 2(S2):S243-8. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2009.164814 · 4.55 Impact Factor
- Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 52(4):558-9; author reply 559. DOI:10.1093/cid/ciq187 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to describe rates of vaccination among HIV-infected adults in care and identify factors associated with vaccination. Using data abstracted from medical records of participants in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) during 8 influenza seasons (1999-2008) and negative binomial models with generalized estimating equation methods, we examined factors associated with increased prevalence of annual influenza vaccination. Among active patients, 25.8% to 43.3% were vaccinated for influenza each year (annual mean=35%, test for trend p=0.71). Vaccination rates peaked in October and November of each season and decreased sharply thereafter. In multivariable analysis, patients who were male (67.2%), non-Hispanic white (70%) or Hispanic (66%), had lower HIV viral loads (73.5%), were prescribed antiretroviral treatment (72.7%), or had a greater number of clinical encounters per year (86.7%) were more likely to receive influenza vaccination. The decreased likelihood of vaccination among women and non-Hispanic black patients suggests the need for focused efforts to reduce disparities. Increasing patient and clinician education on the importance of universal vaccination, and ensuring that vaccination activities continue in HIV clinics during the later months of the influenza season may improve influenza vaccine coverage.Preventive Medicine 05/2011; 53(1-2):89-94. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.04.015 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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