Smooth muscle cell alpha2delta-1 subunits are essential for vasoregulation by CaV1.2 channels.
ABSTRACT Voltage-dependent L-type (Ca(V)1.2) Ca(2+) channels are a heteromeric complex formed from pore-forming alpha(1) and auxiliary alpha(2)delta and beta subunits. Ca(V)1.2 channels are the principal Ca(2+) influx pathway in arterial myocytes and regulate multiple physiological functions, including contraction. The macromolecular composition of arterial myocyte Ca(V)1.2 channels remains poorly understood, with no studies having examined the molecular identity or physiological functions of alpha(2)delta subunits.
We investigated the functional significance of alpha(2)delta subunits in myocytes of resistance-size (100 to 200 mum diameter) cerebral arteries.
alpha(2)delta-1 was the only alpha(2)delta isoform expressed in cerebral artery myocytes. Pregabalin, an alpha(2)delta-1/-2 ligand, and an alpha(2)delta-1 antibody, inhibited Ca(V)1.2 currents in isolated myocytes. Acute pregabalin application reversibly dilated pressurized arteries. Using a novel application of surface biotinylation, data indicated that >95% of Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) and alpha(2)delta-1 subunits were present in the arterial myocyte plasma membrane. Alpha(2)delta-1 knockdown using short hairpin RNA reduced plasma membrane-localized Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) subunits, caused a corresponding elevation in cytosolic Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) subunits, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, inhibited pressure-induced vasoconstriction ("myogenic tone"), and attenuated pregabalin-induced vasodilation. Prolonged (24-hour) pregabalin exposure did not alter total alpha(2)delta-1 or Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) proteins but decreased plasma membrane expression of each subunit, which reduced myogenic tone.
alpha(2)delta-1 is essential for plasma membrane expression of arterial myocyte Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) subunits. alpha(2)delta-1 targeting can block Ca(V)1.2 channels directly and inhibit surface expression of Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) subunits, leading to vasodilation. These data identify alpha(2)delta-1 as a novel molecular target in arterial myocytes, the manipulation of which regulates contractility.
Article: The novel anticonvulsant drug, gabapentin (Neurontin), binds to the alpha2delta subunit of a calcium channel.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexane acetic acid; Neurontin) is a novel anticonvulsant drug, with a mechanism of action apparently dissimilar to that of other antiepileptic agents. We report here the isolation and characterization of a [3H]gabapentin-binding protein from pig cerebral cortex membranes. The detergent-solubilized binding protein was purified 1022-fold, in a six-step column-chromatographic procedure, with a yield of 3.9%. The purified protein had an apparent subunit Mr of 130,000, and was heavily glycosylated. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Mr 130,000 polypeptide, EPFPSAVTIK, was identical to that reported for the alpha2delta subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel from rabbit skeletal muscle (Hamilton, S. L., Hawkes, M. J., Brush, K., Cook, R., Chang, R. J., and Smilowitz, H. M. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 7820-7828). High levels of [3H]gabapentin binding sites were found in membranes prepared from rat brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Binding of [3H]gabapentin to COS-7 cells transfected with alpha2delta cDNA was elevated >10-fold over controls, consistent with the expression of alpha2 delta protein, as measured by Western blotting. Finally, purified L-type Ca2+ channel complexes were fractionated, under dissociating conditions, on an ion-exchange column; [3H]gabapentin binding activity closely followed the elution of the alpha2 delta subunit. [3H]Gabapentin is the first pharmacological agent described that interacts with an alpha2delta subunit of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1996; 271(10):5768-76. · 4.77 Impact Factor