Fibrin is essential for hemostasis; however, abnormal fibrin formation is hypothesized to increase thrombotic risk. We previously showed that in situ thrombin generation on a cell's surface modulates the 3-dimensional structure and stability of the fibrin network. Currently, we compared the abilities of extravascular and intravascular cells to support fibrin formation, structure, and stability. Extravascular cells (fibroblasts, smooth muscle) supported formation of dense fibrin networks that resisted fibrinolysis, whereas unstimulated intravascular (endothelial) cells produced coarse networks that were susceptible to fibrinolysis. All 3 cell types produced a fibrin structural gradient, with a denser network near, versus distal to, the cell surface. Although fibrin structure depended on cellular procoagulant activity, it did not reflect interactions between integrins and fibrin. These findings contrasted with those on platelets, which influenced fibrin structure via interactions between beta3 integrins and fibrin. Inflammatory cytokines that induced prothrombotic activity on endothelial cells caused the production of abnormally dense fibrin networks that resisted fibrinolysis. Blocking tissue factor activity significantly reduced the density and stability of fibrin networks produced by cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. Together, these findings indicate fibrin structure and stability reflect the procoagulant phenotype of the endogenous cells, and suggest abnormal fibrin structure is a novel link between inflammation and thrombosis.
"Recently, however, Campbell et al.117 reported that ECs stimulated by inflammatory cytokines to express TF, similarly to normal TF-expressing extravascular cells (fibroblasts, SMCs), caused the production of abnormally dense fibrin networks that resisted fibrinolysis. Moreover, activated platelets, commonly found in sepsis, not only alter the fibrin structure and reduce susceptibility to lysis via the direct interaction between fibrin and αIIbβ3 integrin117 but also release, together with the causative micro-organism, inorganic polyphosphates, which have been recently shown to modify the fibrin architecture and to reduce the binding of t-PA and plasminogen to fibrin, thereby increasing fibrin resistance to fibrinolysis.118 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is almost invariably associated with haemostatic abnormalities ranging from subclinical activation of blood coagulation (hypercoagulability), which may contribute to localized venous thromboembolism, to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), characterized by massive thrombin formation and widespread microvascular thrombosis, partly responsible of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and subsequent consumption of platelets and coagulation proteins causing, in most severe cases, bleeding manifestations. There is general agreement that the key event underlying this life-threatening sepsis complication is the overwhelming inflammatory host response to the infectious agent leading to the overexpression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistically, the latter, together with the micro-organism and its derivatives, causes DIC by 1) up-regulation of procoagulant molecules, primarily tissue factor (TF), which is produced mainly by stimulated monocytes-macrophages and by specific cells in target tissues; 2) impairment of physiological anticoagulant pathways (antithrombin, protein C pathway, tissue factor pathway inhibitor), which is orchestrated mainly by dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs); and 3) suppression of fibrinolysis due to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by ECs and likely also to thrombin-mediated activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Notably, clotting enzymes non only lead to microvascular thrombosis but can also elicit cellular responses that amplify the inflammatory reactions. Inflammatory mediators can also cause, directly or indirectly, cell apoptosis or necrosis and recent evidence indicates that products released from dead cells, such as nuclear proteins (particularly extracellular histones), are able to propagate further inflammation, coagulation, cell death and MODS. These insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of DIC and MODS may have important implications for the development of new therapeutic agents that could be potentially useful particularly for the management of severe sepsis.
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 2(3):e2010024. DOI:10.4084/MJHID.2010.024
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. Few attempts have been made however to identify the nature of plant natural products with anti-ophidian properties. Baccharis trimera (Less) DC (Asteraceae), known in Brazil as carqueja, has been popularly used to treat liver diseases, rheumatism, diabetes, as well as digestive, hepatic and renal disorders. The active component was identified as 7alpha-hydroxy-3,13-clerodadiene-16,15:18,19-diolide, C20H28O5, (clerodane diterpenoid, Bt-CD). We report now the anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties against snake venoms of a Bt-CD inhibitor from B. trimera. Bt-CD exhibited full inhibition of hemorrhage and proteolytic activity caused by Bothrops snake venoms. The inhibitor was able to neutralize the hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic and caseinolytic activities of class P-I and III metalloproteases isolated from B. neuwiedi and B. jararacussu venoms. No inhibition of the coagulant activity was observed. Bt-CD also partially inhibited the edema induced by other crude venoms, metalloproteases, basic and acidic phospholipases A2. To further elucidate the inhibitory specificity of Bt-CD against metalloproteases isolated from snake venoms, a deeper understanding of its structure and function is necessary. Furthermore, the potential use of these inhibitors to complement anti-venom as an alternative treatment of snakebite envenomations needs to be evaluated in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of tumor cell-associated coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways occurs in malignant disease processes, including breast cancer, and may promote metastatic activity.
To compare the coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways of normal and metastatic cells, we examined two cell lines from the MCF-10 family of breast cells: near-normal immortalized MCF-10A cells, and metastatic MCF-10CA1 cells.
MCF-10CA1 cell motility was significantly increased as compared with that of MCF-10A cells. The two cell types supported similar rates of factor Xa generation, plasma thrombin generation, and fibrin formation. MCF-10A cells produced a stable fibrin network, whereas MCF-10CA1 cells lysed the surrounding fibrin network within 24 h of network formation. Importantly, fibrin located proximal to (within 10 microm) the MCF-10CA1 cell surface lysed substantially faster than fibrin located 100 microm from the surface. MCF-10CA1 cells supported significantly increased plasmin generation rates as compared with MCF-10A cells, providing a mechanism for the increased fibrinolytic activity of these cells towards the fibrin network. Metastatic MCF-10CA1 cells had increased expression (mRNA and protein) levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) and decreased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 as compared with MCF-10A cells. Blocking u-PA activity with the active site-directed protease inhibitor amiloride substantially decreased MCF-10CA1 cell motility. Phosphorylated Akt levels were elevated in MCF-10CA1 cells, which partially explains the increased u-PA expression.
These results suggest that the tumor-associated plasminogen activator pathway, not the coagulation pathway, is a key distinguishing feature between metastatic MCF10-CA1 cells and normal MCF-10A cells.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2010; 8(6):1323-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.03825.x · 5.72 Impact Factor
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