Contributions of extravascular and intravascular cells to fibrin network formation, structure, and stability
ABSTRACT Fibrin is essential for hemostasis; however, abnormal fibrin formation is hypothesized to increase thrombotic risk. We previously showed that in situ thrombin generation on a cell's surface modulates the 3-dimensional structure and stability of the fibrin network. Currently, we compared the abilities of extravascular and intravascular cells to support fibrin formation, structure, and stability. Extravascular cells (fibroblasts, smooth muscle) supported formation of dense fibrin networks that resisted fibrinolysis, whereas unstimulated intravascular (endothelial) cells produced coarse networks that were susceptible to fibrinolysis. All 3 cell types produced a fibrin structural gradient, with a denser network near, versus distal to, the cell surface. Although fibrin structure depended on cellular procoagulant activity, it did not reflect interactions between integrins and fibrin. These findings contrasted with those on platelets, which influenced fibrin structure via interactions between beta3 integrins and fibrin. Inflammatory cytokines that induced prothrombotic activity on endothelial cells caused the production of abnormally dense fibrin networks that resisted fibrinolysis. Blocking tissue factor activity significantly reduced the density and stability of fibrin networks produced by cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. Together, these findings indicate fibrin structure and stability reflect the procoagulant phenotype of the endogenous cells, and suggest abnormal fibrin structure is a novel link between inflammation and thrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. Few attempts have been made however to identify the nature of plant natural products with anti-ophidian properties. Baccharis trimera (Less) DC (Asteraceae), known in Brazil as carqueja, has been popularly used to treat liver diseases, rheumatism, diabetes, as well as digestive, hepatic and renal disorders. The active component was identified as 7alpha-hydroxy-3,13-clerodadiene-16,15:18,19-diolide, C20H28O5, (clerodane diterpenoid, Bt-CD). We report now the anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties against snake venoms of a Bt-CD inhibitor from B. trimera. Bt-CD exhibited full inhibition of hemorrhage and proteolytic activity caused by Bothrops snake venoms. The inhibitor was able to neutralize the hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic and caseinolytic activities of class P-I and III metalloproteases isolated from B. neuwiedi and B. jararacussu venoms. No inhibition of the coagulant activity was observed. Bt-CD also partially inhibited the edema induced by other crude venoms, metalloproteases, basic and acidic phospholipases A2. To further elucidate the inhibitory specificity of Bt-CD against metalloproteases isolated from snake venoms, a deeper understanding of its structure and function is necessary. Furthermore, the potential use of these inhibitors to complement anti-venom as an alternative treatment of snakebite envenomations needs to be evaluated in future studies.Chemico-Biological Interactions 01/2005; 150(3):243-51. DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2004.09.016 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of tumor cell-associated coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways occurs in malignant disease processes, including breast cancer, and may promote metastatic activity. To compare the coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways of normal and metastatic cells, we examined two cell lines from the MCF-10 family of breast cells: near-normal immortalized MCF-10A cells, and metastatic MCF-10CA1 cells. MCF-10CA1 cell motility was significantly increased as compared with that of MCF-10A cells. The two cell types supported similar rates of factor Xa generation, plasma thrombin generation, and fibrin formation. MCF-10A cells produced a stable fibrin network, whereas MCF-10CA1 cells lysed the surrounding fibrin network within 24 h of network formation. Importantly, fibrin located proximal to (within 10 microm) the MCF-10CA1 cell surface lysed substantially faster than fibrin located 100 microm from the surface. MCF-10CA1 cells supported significantly increased plasmin generation rates as compared with MCF-10A cells, providing a mechanism for the increased fibrinolytic activity of these cells towards the fibrin network. Metastatic MCF-10CA1 cells had increased expression (mRNA and protein) levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) and decreased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 as compared with MCF-10A cells. Blocking u-PA activity with the active site-directed protease inhibitor amiloride substantially decreased MCF-10CA1 cell motility. Phosphorylated Akt levels were elevated in MCF-10CA1 cells, which partially explains the increased u-PA expression. These results suggest that the tumor-associated plasminogen activator pathway, not the coagulation pathway, is a key distinguishing feature between metastatic MCF10-CA1 cells and normal MCF-10A cells.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2010; 8(6):1323-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.03825.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At the nexus of cellular and plasma procoagulant activities lies fibrin, which is necessary to provide a clot's structural support. Abnormalities in fibrin network formation or function can result in either bleeding or thrombotic complications. Understanding relationships between procoagulant activity and normal fibrin formation, as well as pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to abnormal fibrin deposition, is essential for the continued development of hemostatic and antithrombotic therapies.Thrombosis Research 04/2010; 125 Suppl 1:S35-7. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2010.01.033 · 2.43 Impact Factor