RGS7 and -11 complexes accelerate the ON-bipolar cell light response.

Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.43). 09/2009; 51(2):1121-9. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.09-4163
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The retinal ON-bipolar cell (ON-BPC) light response is initiated upon deactivation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR6 and the G protein Go. G protein-based signaling cascades are typically accelerated by interaction of the G protein alpha subunit with a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein family. The goal of this study was to determine whether RGS7 and/or -11 serve this function in retinal ON-BPCs.
Retinas from mice lacking RGS11 (RGS11(-/-)), or with a deletion mutation in RGS7 (RGS7(Delta/Delta)), or both, were compared to wild-type (WT) by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The retinal light response was measured with the electroretinogram (ERG). The kinetics of simulated light responses from individual rod bipolar cells were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology.
Levels of the R7 RGS interaction partners, Gbeta5 and R9AP, were reduced in the outer plexiform layer of the RGS11(-/-) and RGS7(Delta/Delta)/RGS11(-/-) mice. ERG recordings demonstrated a delay in the rising phase of the ERG b-wave, larger photopic b-wave amplitudes, and increased scotopic threshold response sensitivity in the RGS11(-/-) and RGS7(Delta/Delta)/RGS11(-/-) mice. The ERG measured from the RGS7(Delta/Delta) retina was normal. Patch-clamp recordings of chemically simulated light responses of rod BPCs revealed a 25-ms delay in the onset of the ON-BPC response in the RGS7(Delta/Delta)/RGS11(-/-) mouse compared with the WT.
RGS11 plays a role in the deactivation of Galphao, which precedes activation of the depolarizing current in ON-BPCs. RGS7 must also serve a role as changes in RGS7(Delta/Delta)/RGS11(-/-) mice were greater than those in RGS11(-/-) mice.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The b-wave is a major component of the electroretinogram that reflects the activity of depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs). The b-wave is used diagnostically to identify patients with defects in DBC signaling or in transmission from photoreceptors to DBCs. In mouse models, an abnormal b-wave has been used to demonstrate a critical role of a particular protein in the release of glutamate from photoreceptor terminals, in establishing the structure of the photoreceptor-to-DBC synapse, in DBC signal transduction, and also in DBC development, survival, or metabolic support. The purpose of this review is to summarize these models and how they have advanced our understanding of outer retinal function.
    Documenta Ophthalmologica 01/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the outer retina, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling mediates phototransduction and synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and ON bipolar cells. In contrast, the functions of modulatory GPCR signaling networks in the inner retina are less well understood. We addressed this question by determining the consequences of augmenting modulatory Gi/o signaling driven by endogenous transmitters. This was done by analyzing the effects of genetically ablating the R7 RGS-binding protein (R7BP), a membrane-targeting protein and positive allosteric modulator of R7-RGS (regulator of the G protein signaling 7) family that deactivates Gi/oα subunits. We found that R7BP is expressed highly in starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). As indicated by electroretinography and multielectrode array recordings of adult retina, ablation of R7BP preserved outer retina function, but altered the firing rate and latency of ON RGCs driven by rods and cones but not rods alone. In developing retina, R7BP ablation increased the burst duration of glutamatergic waves whereas cholinergic waves were unaffected. This effect on glutamatergic waves did not result in impaired segregation of RGC projections to eye-specific domains of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. R7BP knockout mice exhibited normal spatial contrast sensitivity and visual acuity as assessed by optomotor reflexes. Taken together these findings indicate that R7BP-dependent regulation of R7-RGS proteins shapes specific aspects of light-evoked and spontaneous activity of RGCs in mature and developing retina.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82276. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parallel visual pathways are initiated at the first retinal synapse by signaling between the rod and cone photoreceptors and two general classes of bipolar cells. For normal function, ON or depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) require the G-protein-coupled receptor, mGluR6, an intact G-protein-coupled cascade and the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 (TRPM1) cation channel. In addition, another seven transmembrane protein, GPR179, is required for DBC function and recruits the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, RGS7 and RGS11, to the dendritic tips of the DBCs. Here we use the Gpr179(nob5) mouse, which lacks GPR179 and has a no b-wave electroretinogram (ERG) phenotype, to demonstrate that despite the absence of both GPR179 and RGS7/RGS11, a small dark-adapted ERG b-wave remains and can be enhanced with long duration flashes. Consistent with the ERG, the mGluR6-mediated gating of TRPM1 can be evoked pharmacologically in Gpr179(nob5) and RGS7(-/-)/RGS11(-/-) rod BCs if strong stimulation conditions are used. In contrast, direct gating of TRPM1 by capsaicin in RGS7(-/-)/RGS11(-/-) and WT rod BCs is similar, but severely compromised in Gpr179(nob5) rod BCs. Noise and standing current analyses indicate that the remaining channels in Gpr179(nob5) and RGS7(-/-)/RGS11(-/-) rod BCs have a very low open probability. We propose that GPR179 along with RGS7 and RGS11 controls the ability of the mGluR6 cascade to gate TRPM1. In addition to its role in localizing RGS7 and RGS11 to the dendritic tips, GPR179 via a direct interaction with the TRPM1 channel alters its ability to be gated directly by capsaicin.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2014; 34(18):6334-6343. · 6.91 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014