Article

Effects and uptake of gold nanoparticles deposited at the air-liquid interface of a human epithelial airway model.

Institute of Anatomy, Division of Histology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 09/2009; 242(1):56-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2009.09.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine and biology has increased rapidly in recent years. Gold NPs have advantageous properties such as chemical stability, high electron density and affinity to biomolecules, making them very promising candidates as drug carriers and diagnostic tools. However, diverse studies on the toxicity of gold NPs have reported contradictory results. To address this issue, a triple cell co-culture model simulating the alveolar lung epithelium was used and exposed at the air-liquid interface. The cell cultures were exposed to characterized aerosols with 15 nm gold particles (61 ng Au/cm2 and 561 ng Au/cm2 deposition) and incubated for 4 h and 24 h. Experiments were repeated six times. The mRNA induction of pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha, IL-8, iNOS) and oxidative stress markers (HO-1, SOD2) was measured, as well as protein induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF, TNFalpha, INFgamma). A pre-stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was performed to further study the effects of particles under inflammatory conditions. Particle deposition and particle uptake by cells were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and design-based stereology. A homogeneous deposition was revealed, and particles were found to enter all cell types. No mRNA induction due to particles was observed for all markers. The cell culture system was sensitive to LPS but gold particles did not cause any synergistic or suppressive effects. With this experimental setup, reflecting the physiological conditions more precisely, no adverse effects from gold NPs were observed. However, chronic studies under in vivo conditions are needed to entirely exclude adverse effects.

0 Followers
 · 
304 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When particles incorporated within a mammalian organism come into contact with body fluids they will bind to soluble proteins or those within cellular membranes forming what is called a protein corona. This binding process is very complex and highly dynamic due to the plethora of proteins with different affinities and fractions in different body fluids and the large variation of compounds and structures of the particle surface. Interestingly, in the case of nanoparticles (NP) this protein corona is well suited to provide a guiding vehicle of translocation within body fluids and across membranes. This NP translocation may subsequently lead to accumu-lation in various organs and tissues and their respective cell types that are not expected to accumulate such tiny foreign bodies. Because of this unprecedented NP accumulation, potentially adverse biological responses in tissues and cells cannot be neglected a priori but require thorough investigations. Therefore, we studied the interactions and protein binding kinetics of blood serum proteins with a number of engineered NP as a function of their physicochemical properties. Here we show by in vitro incubation tests that the binding capacity of different engineered NP (polystyrene, elemental carbon) for selected serum proteins depends strongly on the NP size and the properties of engineered surface modifications. In the following attempt, we studied systematically the effect of the size (5, 15, 80 nm) of gold spheres (AuNP), surface-modified with the same ionic ligand; as well as 5 nm AuNP
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 09/2014; 2014(5):1699-1711. DOI:10.3762/bjnano.5.180 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a current interest in reducing the in vivo toxicity testing of nanomaterials in animals by increasing toxicity testing using in vitro cellular assays; however, toxicological results are seldom concordant between in vivo and in vitro models. This study compared global multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-induced gene expression from human lung epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells in monoculture and coculture with gene expression from mouse lungs exposed to MWCNT. Using a cutoff of 10% false discovery rate and 1.5 fold change, we determined that there were more concordant genes (gene expression both up- or downregulated in vivo and in vitro) expressed in both cell types in coculture than in monoculture. When reduced to only those genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis, known outcomes of in vivo MWCNT exposure, there were more disease-related concordant genes expressed in coculture than monoculture. Additionally, different cellular signaling pathways are activated in response to MWCNT dependent upon culturing conditions. As coculture gene expression better correlated with in vivo gene expression, we suggest that cellular cocultures may offer enhanced in vitro models for nanoparticle risk assessment and the reduction of in vivo toxicological testing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Toxicology 12/2014; 328. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2014.12.012 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In general the prediction of the toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of engineered nanoparticles in humans is initially determined using in vitro static cell culture assays. However, such test systems may not be sufficient for testing nanoparticles intended for intravenous application. Once injected, these nanoparticles are caught up in the blood stream in vivo and are therefore in continuous movement. Physical forces such as shear stress and cyclic stretch caused by the pulsatile blood flow are known to change the phenotype of endothelial cells which line the luminal side of the vasculature and thus may be able to affect cell-nanoparticle interactions.Methods In this study we investigated the uptake of amorphous silica nanoparticles in primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured under physiological cyclic stretch conditions (1 Hz, 5% stretch) and compared this to cells in a standard static cell culture system. The toxicity of varying concentrations was assessed using cell viability and cytotoxicity studies. Nanoparticles were also characterized for the induction of an inflammatory response. Changes to cell morphology was evaluated in cells by examining actin and PECAM staining patterns and the amounts of nanoparticles taken up under the different culture conditions by evaluation of intracellular fluorescence. The expression profile of 26 stress-related was determined by microarray analysis.ResultsThe results show that cytotoxicity to endothelial cells caused by silica nanoparticles is not significantly altered under stretch compared to static culture conditions. Nevertheless, cells cultured under stretch internalize fewer nanoparticles. The data indicate that the decrease of nanoparticle content in stretched cells was not due to the induction of cell stress, inflammation processes or an enhanced exocytosis but rather a result of decreased endocytosis.Conclusions In conclusion, this study shows that while the toxic impact of silica nanoparticles is not altered by stretch this dynamic model demonstrates altered cellular uptake of nanoparticles under physiologically relevant in vitro cell culture models. In particular for the development of nanoparticles for biomedical applications such improved in vitro cell culture models may play a pivotal role in the reduction of animal experiments and development costs.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 12/2014; 11(1):1. DOI:10.1186/s12989-014-0068-y · 6.99 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
204 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014