Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

Institute of Anatomy, Division of Histology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.71). 09/2009; 242(1):56-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2009.09.014
Source: PubMed


The impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine and biology has increased rapidly in recent years. Gold NPs have advantageous properties such as chemical stability, high electron density and affinity to biomolecules, making them very promising candidates as drug carriers and diagnostic tools. However, diverse studies on the toxicity of gold NPs have reported contradictory results. To address this issue, a triple cell co-culture model simulating the alveolar lung epithelium was used and exposed at the air-liquid interface. The cell cultures were exposed to characterized aerosols with 15 nm gold particles (61 ng Au/cm2 and 561 ng Au/cm2 deposition) and incubated for 4 h and 24 h. Experiments were repeated six times. The mRNA induction of pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha, IL-8, iNOS) and oxidative stress markers (HO-1, SOD2) was measured, as well as protein induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF, TNFalpha, INFgamma). A pre-stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was performed to further study the effects of particles under inflammatory conditions. Particle deposition and particle uptake by cells were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and design-based stereology. A homogeneous deposition was revealed, and particles were found to enter all cell types. No mRNA induction due to particles was observed for all markers. The cell culture system was sensitive to LPS but gold particles did not cause any synergistic or suppressive effects. With this experimental setup, reflecting the physiological conditions more precisely, no adverse effects from gold NPs were observed. However, chronic studies under in vivo conditions are needed to entirely exclude adverse effects.

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Available from: Christina Brandenberger, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "The fast development of nanotechnology has brought about novel delivery strategies for inhaled and target-specific drugs for therapeutic applications, vaccines and diagnostics [4,5]. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are a candidate material for therapeutic applications, however little is known about how AuNP interact with different cell types [6]. Due to the high deposition efficiency of nanoparticles on the surface of the entire respiratory tract [7] and the health effects of UFP reported in humans (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In healthy lungs, deposited micrometer-sized particles are efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages present on airway surfaces; however, uptake of nanoparticles (NP) by macrophages appears less effective and is largely unstudied in lung disease. Using mouse models of allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we investigated NP uptake after challenge with common biogenic ambient air microparticles. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from diseased mice (allergic asthma: ovalbumin [OVA] sensitized and COPD: Scnn1b-transgenic [Tg]) and their respective healthy controls were exposed ex vivo first to 3-μm fungal spores of Calvatia excipuliformis and then to 20-nm gold (Au) NP. Electron microscopic imaging was performed and NP uptake was assessed by quantitative morphometry. Results Macrophages from diseased mice were significantly larger compared to controls in OVA-allergic versus sham controls and in Scnn1b-Tg versus wild type (WT) mice. The percentage of macrophages containing AuNP tended to be lower in Scnn1b-Tg than in WT mice. In all animal groups, fungal spores were localized in macrophage phagosomes, the membrane tightly surrounding the spore, whilst AuNP were found in vesicles largely exceeding NP size, co-localized in spore phagosomes and occasionally, in the cytoplasm. AuNP in vesicles were located close to the membrane. In BAL from OVA-allergic mice, 13.9 ± 8.3% of all eosinophils contained AuNP in vesicles exceeding NP size and close to the membrane. Conclusions Overall, AuNP uptake by BAL macrophages occurred mainly by co-uptake together with other material, including micrometer-sized ambient air particles like fungal spores. The lower percentage of NP containing macrophages in BAL from Scnn1b-Tg mice points to a change in the macrophage population from a highly to a less phagocytic phenotype. This likely contributes to inefficient macrophage clearance of NP in lung disease. Finally, the AuNP containing eosinophils in OVA-allergic mice show that other inflammatory cells present on airway surfaces may substantially contribute to NP uptake.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 07/2014; 14(1):116. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-14-116 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "The number of particles per vacuole was however greater for the 13 nm AuNPs, even though the vacuole number per cell for both sizes of AuNPs was similar [15]. Lastly, TEM was used to show the uptake of 15 nm AuNPs by triple cell co-culture which consisted of human blood monocyte derived macrophages and dendritic cells as well as the A549 human alveolar epithelial cells [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable in vitro toxicity testing is needed prior to the commencement of in vivo testing necessary for hazard identification and risk assessment of nanoparticles. In this study, the cytotoxicity and uptake of 14 nm and 20 nm citrate stabilised gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO, and the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 were investigated. Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was assessed via traditional XTT-, LDH-, and ATP-based assays, followed by cell impedance studies. Dark-field imaging and hyperspectral imaging were used to confirm the uptake of AuNPs into the cells. Interference of the AuNPs with the XTT- and ATP-based assays was overcome through the use of cell impedance technology. AuNPs were shown to be relatively non-toxic using this methodology; nevertheless CHO cells were the most sensitive cell type with 20 nm AuNPs having the highest toxicity. Uptake of both 14 nm and 20 nm AuNPs was observed in all cell lines in a time- and cell type-dependent manner. Using the cell impedance and dark-field hyperspectral imaging technologies, it was possible to study the toxicity of AuNPs in different cell lines and show that these cells could internalize AuNPs with their subsequent intracellular aggregation. It was also possible to show that this toxicity would not correlate with the level of uptake but it would correlate with cell-type and the size of the AuNPs. Therefore, these two label-free methodologies used in this study are suitable for in vitro studies on the effects of AuNPs, and could present themselves as appropriate and valuable methodologies for future nanoparticle toxicity and uptake studies.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 10/2013; 10(1):50. DOI:10.1186/1743-8977-10-50 · 7.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Current toxicological approaches call for a reduction in observational in vivo testing and an increase in predictive in vitro analysis, and there is a current push for an increased ability to accurately portray in vivo effects in an in vitro system [25-27]. As the epithelial lining is the primary barrier to inhaled particles, co-culture of lung epithelial cells, either in submerged or air-liquid interface culture, with associated macrophages, fibroblasts, and/or endothelial cells has increased the potential to study the in vitro toxic effects of nanomaterials in a more in vivo-like manner [28-36]. Co-culture of multiple cell types has been proposed to be superior to mono-culture exposure and more adequately reflect an in vivo signaling environment [31,33,34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology, particularly the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), is a rapidly growing discipline with implications for advancement in a variety of fields. A major route of exposure to MWCNT during both occupational and environmental contact is inhalation. While many studies showed adverse effects to the vascular endothelium upon MWCNT exposure, in vitro results often do not correlate with in vivo effects. This study aimed to determine if an alveolar-capillary co-culture model could determine changes in the vascular endothelium after epithelial exposure to MWCNT. A co-culture system in which both human small airway epithelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells were separated by a Transwell membrane so as to resemble an alveolar-capillary interaction was used.Following exposure of the epithelial layer to MWCNT, the effects to the endothelial barrier were determined. Exposure of the epithelial layer to MWCNT induced multiple changes in the endothelial cell barrier, including an increase in reactive oxygen species, actin rearrangement, loss of VE-cadherin at the cell surface, and an increase in endothelial angiogenic ability. Overall increases in secreted VEGFA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 protein levels, as well as increases in intracellular phospho-NF-kappaB, phospho-Stat3, and phospho-p38 MAPK, were also noted in HMVEC after epithelial exposure. The co-culture system identified that alveolar-capillary exposure to MWCNT induced multiple changes to the underlying endothelium, potentially through cell signaling mediators derived from MWCNT-exposed epithelial cells. Therefore, the co-culture system appears to be a relevant in vitro method to study the pulmonary toxicity of MWCNT.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 08/2013; 10(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1743-8977-10-35 · 7.11 Impact Factor
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