Cocaine and opiates use in pregnancy: detection of drugs in neonatal meconium and urine.

Institute of Legal Medicine, Forensic Toxicology Service, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, San Francisco, s/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Journal of analytical toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.63). 09/2009; 33(7):351-5. DOI: 10.1093/jat/33.7.351
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study, the case of a newborn with symptoms of hyperexcitability was analyzed. After it was confirmed in the hospital that the mother had consumed drugs during pregnancy using an enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique, samples of the newborn's urine and meconium were sent to our laboratory to observe the evolution in the distribution of cocaine and opiates during the days following birth. For urine analysis, screening was done with an immunoassay technique, and the confirmation was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) according to a published method. A GC-MS method for simultaneous analysis of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine in meconium is described. GC-MS confirmation of urine and meconium results showed consumption of cocaine and codeine during pregnancy and also showed the levels of drugs gradually declined, totally disappearing by the third day.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A fast gas chromatography (GC)-MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous screening of different classes of drugs of abuse in urine. Tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite, cocaine, opiates such as morphine, O-6-monoacetylmorphine (O-6-MAM), codeine, opioids such as buprenorphine, methadone, pentazocine, fentanyl and analogues and their main metabolites can be detected and quantified after a simple liquid-liquid extraction in alkaline conditions and derivatisation to obtain the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives. The chromatographic separation is performed in a total time of 6 min, using a short GC column (5% phenyl methyl silicone, 10-m length × 0.18-mm internal diameter). The Limits of Detection are satisfactory for forensic purposes for all the substances; the repeatability of concentrations (percent coefficients of variation) are always lower than 15% at high and low concentration levels, and accuracy, intended as % error on the true value, is always lower than 15% for all the analytes. The method can successfully be applied for screening analyses in many fields of forensic toxicology.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2011; 399(4):1623-30. DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-4471-4 · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use and abuse of illegal drugs affects all modern societies, and therefore the assessment of drug exposure is an important task that needs to be accomplished. For this reason, the reliable determination of these drugs and their metabolites in biological specimens is an issue of utmost relevance for both clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories in their fields of expertise, including in utero drug exposure, driving under the influence of drugs and drug use in workplace scenarios. Most of the confirmatory analyses for abused drugs in biological samples are performed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods, but use of the more recent and sensitive liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry technology is increasing dramatically. This article reviews recently published articles that describe procedures for the detection of opiates in the most commonly used human biological matrices, blood and urine, and also in unconventional ones, e.g. oral fluid, hair, and meconium. Special attention will be paid to sample preparation and chromatographic analysis.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2011; 400(6):1665-90. DOI:10.1007/s00216-011-4888-4 · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade therapeutic interventions during pregnancy, including the use of drugs, has increased; for example, the prescription use of opioids and nonopioid analgesics for pain management during pregnancy has increased by about 40%. Additionally, women also self-medicate during pregnancy with opioids, and are treated with methadone and buprenorphine which are used as substitution therapy for substance dependence during pregnancy. A nationally representative survey noted that ~74% of women of reproductive age reported substance use during the previous year, decreasing to ~63% amongst those who were pregnant. Substance dependence was reported by ~20% of women who were not pregnant, and ~15% of those who were pregnant. Understanding the consequences of opioid treatment or dependence during pregnancy requires an investigation of the placental disposition (metabolism and transfer), as well as of the impact of the drugs on the placental function. This review summarizes the research on the placental disposition of opioids and their impact on the placental function.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 05/2011; 12(5):797-803. DOI:10.2174/138920111795470859 · 2.51 Impact Factor