Combination of host susceptibility and Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence define gene expression profile in the host.
ABSTRACT Progression and outcome of tuberculosis is governed by extensive crosstalk between pathogen and host. Analyses of global changes in gene expression during immune response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) can help identify molecular markers of disease state and progression. Global distribution of M.tb strains with different degrees of virulence and drug resistance, especially for the immunocompromised host, make closer analyses of host responses more pressing than ever. Here, we describe global transcriptional responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient (iNOS(-/-)) and WT mice infected with two related M.tb strains of markedly different virulence, namely the M.tb laboratory strains H37Rv and H37Ra. Both hosts exhibited highly similar resistance to infection with H37Ra. In contrast, iNOS(-/-) mice rapidly succumbed to H37Rv, whereas WT mice developed chronic course of disease. By differential analyses, virulence-specific changes in global host gene expression were analyzed to identify molecular markers characteristic for chronic versus acute infection. We identified several markers unique for different stages of disease progression and not previously associated with virulence-specific host responses in tuberculosis.
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ABSTRACT: Control of infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in mice is dependent on the generation of T helper (Th)1-mediated immunity that serves, via secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma and other cytokines, to upregulate the antimycobacterial function of macrophages of which the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS)2 is an essential event. As a means to understanding the basis of Mtb virulence, the ability of gene-deleted mice incapable of making NOS2 (NOS2(-/-)), gp91(Phox) subunit of the respiratory burst NADPH-oxidase complex (Phox(-/-)), or either enzyme (NOS2/Phox(-/-)), to control airborne infection with the avirulent R1Rv and H37Ra strains of Mtb was compared with their ability control infection with the virulent H37Rv strain. NOS2(-/-), Phox(-/-), and NOS2/Phox(-/-) mice showed no deficiency in ability to control infection with either strain of avirulent Mtb. By contrast, NOS2(-/-) mice, but not Phox(-/-) mice, were incapable of controlling H37Rv infection and died early from neutrophil-dominated lung pathology. Control of infection with avirulent, as well as virulent Mtb, depended on the synthesis of IFN-gamma, and was associated with a substantial increase in the synthesis in the lungs of mRNA for IFN-gamma and NOS2, and with production of NOS2 by macrophages at sites of infection. The results indicate that virulent, but not avirulent, Mtb can overcome the growth inhibitory action of a Th1-dependent, NOS2-independent mechanism of defense.Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2002; 196(7):991-8. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) by alveolar macrophages (AM) are increased in patients infected with M. tuberculosis. NO levels in the exhaled air of 19 active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and 14 control subjects were measured using a chemiluminescence NO analyser. The expression of iNOS on AM was studied by labelling AM with anti-mac iNOS polyclonal antibody analysed with a flow cytometer. The spontaneous generation of RNI by cultured AM was also measured. Data are presented as mean+/-SEM. The level of NO in exhaled air was higher in patients with active TB (16.2+/-1.2 parts per billion (ppb)) compared to control subjects (6.5+/-0.9 ppb), p<0.0001. Exhaled NO decreased with anti-TB treatment. Compared to control subjects (29.0+/-4.5 fluorescence intensity (FI)), iNOS expression on AM was upregulated in TB patients (86.3+/-12.5 FI) p<0.001 and the capacity for spontaneous generation of nitrite was enhanced. Nitrite production was inhibited by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a competitive inhibitor of iNOS. The expression of iNOS on AM was related to the concentration of exhaled NO (r=0.66, p<0.001) and the nitrite generation capacity of AM (r(s)=0.77, p<0.001). We conclude that the increase in exhaled nitric oxide observed in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis is due to an upregulation of inhaled NO synthase expression in alveolar macrophages which have an enhanced capacity for nitric oxide production.European Respiratory Journal 05/1998; 11(4):809-15. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage apoptosis plays a role in mycobacterial infection. To define the mechanism by which virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis escapes apoptosis and killing in macrophages, J774 macrophages were infected with virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv and attenuated H37Ra strains. H37Rv induced less apoptosis than H37Ra, and caspase 3 was activated in H37Ra- and H37Rv-infected macrophages. Intracellular H37Rv bacilli were released at a higher rate into the supernatant than were H37Ra by the sixth day of infection, and this was simultaneously accompanied by the increased necrosis of infected cells showing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Fas mRNA expression was downregulated and FasL was upregulated in H37Ra- and H37Rv-infected macrophages, while Bcl-2 was upregulated in H37Rv-infected macrophages but downregulated in H37Ra-infected macrophages as seen by real-time PCR. These results indicate that M. tuberculosis H37Ra and H37Rv proliferate in macrophages by preventing them from inducing apoptosis during the early phase of infection, and that M. tuberculosis H37Rv-infected macrophages are found to express Bcl-2 mRNA, which leads to anti-apoptotic activity, and that relatively distinct necrosis might occur during the later phase of infection.Microbiology and Immunology 02/2005; 49(9):845-52. · 1.55 Impact Factor