Division of Pediatric Surgery, Center for Pediatric Surgical Clinical Trials & Outcomes Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Harvey 319, Baltimore, MD 21287-0005,
Mortality rates for eight surgical procedures have been endorsed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality as part of the Inpatient Quality Indicators developed to assist hospitals in identifying potential problem areas and as an indirect measure of quality for inpatient adult surgical care. Little to no broad information relating to the overall mortality relating to the surgical care of children is available. An analysis providing national data on the most common procedures performed in children and their associated mortality would be useful in beginning to create benchmarks for standards of surgical care in the pediatric patient.
A total of 93 million admissions from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) file from the years 1988-1996, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004-2005 and the Kids Inpatient Database (KID) from 1997, 2000, 2003 were screened to identify surgical admissions in children under the age of 18 years. Variables such as gender, race, age at admission, length of hospital stay, total hospital charges, insurance status, and inpatient mortality were analyzed. Diagnosis related group (DRG) codes were used to provide inpatient mortality rates for 147 different procedures and 15 surgical subspecialties.
Over the 18-year period considered, a total of 2,087,915 surgical admissions in U.S. children were identified. Most of the patients were white (60.92%), male (54.64%), and were treated in urban, teaching hospitals (60.36%). Overall inpatient mortality was 0.85%, with a median hospital stay of 3 days. Procedures with the highest mortality were craniotomies for trauma (26.27%), liver and/or intestinal transplants (11.12%), heart transplants (10.94%), and other procedures for multiple significant trauma (10.69%). When analyzed by surgical subspecialty, gastrointestinal or general pediatric surgery saw the highest volume of patients, followed by orthopedic and ear, nose, and throat surgery (534,053 vs. 352,228 vs. 257,118 total procedures, respectively).
Pediatric surgical literature has classically focused on disease-based outcomes. However, such data do not provide a comprehensive profile of pediatric surgical outcomes by procedure or subspecialty. The present study provides nationwide data relating to inpatient pediatric surgical outcomes in U.S. hospitals by procedure and pediatric subspecialty.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose: The patterns and the factors influencing outcome of paediatric surgical admissions may be crucial to policy formulation. This study reports the pattern and the outcome of paediatric surgical admissions in a developing country. Materials & Methods: The pattern and the outcome of paediatric surgical admissions at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January and December 2009 were audited in a retrospective study. Results: In total, 871 children aged between one day and 16 years who accounted for 43% of paediatric surgical workload were admitted, 322 (37%) on emergency basis. Of these, only 530 (60.8%) were admitted to a paediatric surgical ward while the rest were admitted in different wards, including nonsurgical wards, due to shortage of manpower and lack of paediatric surgical facilities. Three consultant paediatric surgeons and 17 nurses (only one paediatric nurse) managed an average of 46 new admissions per month with doctor to patient and nurse to patient ratio of 1: 15 and 1:33 respectively. Shortage of bed spaces also resulted in the admission of many clean surgical cases in the same ward with septic medical cases. This increased postoperative infective complications, duration of hospitalization and mortality rate especially among 106 neonates admitted to Special Care Baby Unit compared to those in paediatric surgical ward (P<0.0001). Conclusion: The need for the provision of more paediatric surgical facilities and training of more paediatric surgical personnel to match the high paediatric surgical workload is emphasized by this audit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has suggested that insurance status, gender, and ethnicity all have an independent association with mortality after trauma. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether these factors exerted survival impact that could be observed throughout the hospital stay.
Using the National Trauma Data Bank (version 7.0), a Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was performed on young (19-30 years old) trauma patients to mitigate the impact of comorbid confounders. Variables included in the model were age, gender, ethnicity, Injury Severity Score, presence of shock at presentation, mechanism of injury, insurance status, year of admission, teaching status of the hospital, diagnosis of substance abuse or psychotic disorders, and complications after admission. Rate ratios (RRs) comparing the slopes of the adjusted survival curves were calculated using the Mantel-Cox method.
A total of 192,488 young trauma patients were identified with complete data. Increased hazard of death was seen in patients who were uninsured (hazard ratio [HR]=1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.59-1.80, p<0.001), of a minority ethnicity (HR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01-1.15, p=0.025) or men (HR=1.14, 95% CI=1.04-1.23, p=0.004). RRs were significantly larger between insurance status (RR=1.75, 95% CI=1.58-1.94, p<0.001) than between race (RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10-1.37, p<0.001) or between gender (RR=1.16, 95% CI=1.01-1.32, p=0.030).
Risk of death on the first hospital day after injury differs by insurance status, and this disparity becomes more pronounced throughout the hospital stay. Further study is necessary to determine whether this is a result of additional unmeasured patient covariates with insurance status or a difference in provider behavior in response to patient insurance status.
The Journal of trauma 01/2011; 70(1):130-4; discussion 134-5. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182032b34 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical mortality is a frequent outcome measure in studies of volume-outcome relationships, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has endorsed surgical mortality after craniotomies as an Inpatient Quality Indicator. Still, the frequency and causes of 30-day mortality after neurosurgical procedures have not been much explored. The authors sought to study the frequency and possible causes of death following primary intracranial tumor operations. They also sought to explore a possible predictive value of perioperative mortality rates from neurosurgical centers in relation to long-term survival.
Using population-based data from the Norwegian cancer registry, the authors identified 15,918 primary operations for primary CNS tumors treated in Norway in the period from August 1955 through December 2008. Patients were followed up until death, emigration, or September 2009. Causes of mortality as indicated on death certificates were studied. Factors associated with an increased risk of perioperative death were identified.
The overall risk of perioperative death after first-time surgery for primary intracranial tumors is currently 2.2% and has decreased over the last decades. An age ≥ 70 years and histopathological entities with poor long-term prognoses are risk factors. Overlapping lesions are also associated with excess risk, indicating that lesion size or multifocality may matter. The overall risk of perioperative death is also higher in biopsy cases than in resection cases. Perioperative mortality rates of the 4 Norwegian neurosurgical centers were not predictive of their respective long-term survival rates.
Although considered surgically related if they occur within the first 30 days of surgery, most early postoperative deaths can happen independent of the handiwork of the operating surgeon or anesthesiologist. Overall prognosis of the disease seems to be a strong predictor of perioperative death-perhaps not surprisingly since the 30-day mortality rate is merely the intonation of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Both referral and treatment policies at a neurosurgical center will therefore markedly affect such early outcomes, but early deaths may not necessarily reflect overall quality of care or long-term results. The low incidence of perioperative death in intracranial tumor surgery also greatly limits the statistical power in comparative analyses, such as between published patient series or between centers and certainly between surgeons. Therefore the authors question the value of perioperative mortality rates as a quality indicator in modern neurosurgery for tumors.
Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2012; 116(4):825-34. DOI:10.3171/2011.12.JNS11339 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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