AAV-Tau Mediates Pyramidal Neurodegeneration by Cell-Cycle Re-Entry without Neurofibrillary Tangle Formation in Wild-Type Mice

Experimental Genetics Group, Department of Human Genetics, KULeuven-Campus, Leuven, Belgium.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 10/2009; 4(10):e7280. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007280
Source: PubMed


In Alzheimer's disease tauopathy is considered secondary to amyloid, and the duality obscures their relation and the definition of their respective contributions.
Transgenic mouse models do not resolve this problem conclusively, i.e. the relative hierarchy of amyloid and tau pathology depends on the actual model and the genes expressed or inactivated. Here, we approached the problem in non-transgenic models by intracerebral injection of adeno-associated viral vectors to express protein tau or amyloid precursor protein in the hippocampus in vivo. AAV-APP mutant caused neuronal accumulation of amyloid peptides, and eventually amyloid plaques at 6 months post-injection, but with only marginal hippocampal cell-death. In contrast, AAV-Tau, either wild-type or mutant P301L, provoked dramatic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1/2 and cortex within weeks. Tau-mediated neurodegeneration proceeded without formation of large fibrillar tau-aggregates or tangles, but with increased expression of cell-cycle markers.
We present novel AAV-based models, which demonstrate that protein tau mediates pyramidal neurodegeneration in vivo. The data firmly support the unifying hypothesis that post-mitotic neurons are forced to re-enter the cell-cycle in primary and secondary tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease.

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    • "Immunohistochemistry was performed essentially as described [26], [30]. For CNPase (Millipore - MAB326) an antigen retrieval step was necessary. "
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    ABSTRACT: The stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) is the connection hub between entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, two brain regions that are most vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. We recently identified a specific synaptic deficit of Nectin-3 in transgenic models for tauopathy. Here we defined cognitive impairment and electrophysiological problems in the SLM of Tau.P301L mice, which corroborated the structural defects in synapses and dendritic spines. Reduced diffusion of DiI from the ERC to the hippocampus indicated defective myelinated axonal pathways. Ultrastructurally, myelinated axons in the temporoammonic pathway (TA) that connects ERC to CA1 were damaged in Tau.P301L mice at young age. Unexpectedly, the myelin defects were even more severe in bigenic biGT mice that co-express GSK3β with Tau.P301L in neurons. Combined, our data demonstrate that neuronal expression of protein Tau profoundly affected the functional and structural organization of the entorhinal-hippocampal complex, in particular synapses and myelinated axons in the SLM. White matter pathology deserves further attention in patients suffering from tauopathy and Alzheimer's disease.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87605. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087605 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Immunohistochemistry was performed as previously described [29,35,60,61]. After rinsing in PBS, sections were pretreated for 15 min with 1.5% H2O2 in 50% methanol/PBS to eliminate endogenous brain peroxidase activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background GSK3β is involved in a wide range of physiological functions, and is presumed to act in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, from bipolar disorder to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the GSK3α isozyme remained largely ignored with respect to both aspects. Results We generated and characterized two mouse strains with neuron-specific or with total GSK3α deficiency. Behavioral and electrophysiological analysis demonstrated the physiological importance of neuronal GSK3α, with GSK3β not compensating for impaired cognition and reduced LTP. Interestingly, the passive inhibitory avoidance task proved to modulate the phosphorylation status of both GSK3 isozymes in wild-type mice, further implying both to function in cognition. Moreover, GSK3α contributed to the neuronal architecture of the hippocampal CA1 sub-region that is most vulnerable in AD. Consequently, practically all parameters and characteristics indicated that both GSK3 isoforms were regulated independently, but that they acted on the same physiological functions in learning and memory, in mobility and in behavior. Conclusions GSK3α proved to be regulated independently from GSK3β, and to exert non-redundant physiological neurological functions in general behavior and in cognition. Moreover, GSK3α contributes to the pathological phosphorylation of protein Tau.
    Molecular Brain 05/2013; 6(1):27. DOI:10.1186/1756-6606-6-27 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Of note, similar intracerebral injections in wild-type mice of either AAV-APP or AAV-APP.SLA to express human wild-type APP or triple mutant APP.SLA [5], [27], [43] did not affect the expression of Nectin-3 within the SLM, not even at 3 months post-injection (Fig. 8B, D). As an additional control, we injected AAV-EGFP vectors intracerebrally in wild-type mice and observed normal levels of Nectin-3 in the SLM (Fig. 8B, D). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion molecules are important structural substrates, required for synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis. CAMs differ widely in their expression throughout different brain regions and their specific structural and functional roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated selected cell adhesion molecules for alterations in expression levels and neuronal localization in validated mouse models for Alzheimer's disease that mimic the age-related progression of amyloid accumulation and tauopathy. Among the cell adhesion molecules analyzed, Nectin-3 expression was affected most and specifically in all mouse models with tauopathy. In particular was Nectin-3 depleted from the specific region of the hippocampus, known as the stratum lacunosum and moleculare, in mice that express wild-type or mutant human protein Tau, either chronically or sub-acutely. Tauopathy progresses from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus by unknown mechanisms that could involve transport by the myelinated axons of the temporoammonic and perforant pathways. The decreased expression of Nectin-3 in the stratum lacunosum moleculare is an early marker of impaired transport, and eventual synaptic problems, caused by beginning tauopathy.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63589. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063589 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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