Article

Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of DSM-IV anxiety disorders.

Department of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo 3, Norway.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science (Impact Factor: 6.62). 10/2009; 195(4):301-7. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.059485
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Twin data permit decomposition of comorbidity into genetically and environmentally derived correlations. No previous twin study includes all major forms of anxiety disorder.
To estimate the degree to which genetic and environmental risk factors are shared rather than unique to dimensionally scored panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Data obtained from 2801 young-adult Norwegian twins by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were analysed with the Mx program.
A multivariate common factor model fitted best. The latent liability to all anxiety disorders was substantially more heritable (54%) than the individual disorders (23% to 40%). Most of the genetic effect was common to the disorders. Genes contributed just over 50% to the covariance between liabilities.
The five anxiety disorders all share genetic and environmental risk factors. This has implications for the revision of the anxiety disorder section in DSM-V.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
118 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review brings together recent research from molecular, neural circuit, animal model, and human studies to help understand the neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder is common and debilitating, and it often leads to further psychopathology. Numerous studies have demonstrated that extremely behaviorally inhibited and temperamentally anxious young children are at marked risk of developing social anxiety disorder. Recent work in human and nonhuman primates has identified a distributed brain network that underlies early-life anxiety including the central nucleus of the amygdala, the anterior hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Studies in nonhuman primates have demonstrated that alterations in this circuit are trait-like in that they are stable over time and across contexts. Notably, the components of this circuit are differentially influenced by heritable and environmental factors, and specific lesion studies have demonstrated a causal role for multiple components of the circuit. Molecular studies in rodents and primates point to disrupted neurodevelopmental and neuroplastic processes within critical components of the early-life dispositional anxiety neural circuit. The possibility of identifying an early-life at-risk phenotype, along with an understanding of its neurobiology, provides an unusual opportunity to conceptualize novel preventive intervention strategies aimed at reducing the suffering of anxious children and preventing them from developing further psychopathology.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2014; · 13.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low back (LBP) and chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) both have a significant genetic component and are associated with increased body mass index (BMI). We examined whether LBP and CWP share common genetic factors, and to what extent this correlation is modified by the genetic factors influencing BMI. Genetic analysis of binary traits such as pain is not simple, particularly if their risk is associated with age or other quantitative traits. Implementing Falconer's polygenic threshold concept for dichotomous traits inheritance, we developed new software to examine the extent of the genetic influence on LBP and CWP under age and BMI dependence. The analysis was conducted on 3266 and 2256 UK female twins, assessed for LBP and CWP, respectively. Analysis of the liability scores with threshold to LBP and CWP established substantial contribution of genetic factors to their variation (h(2) > 0.60, p<0.004-0.0003) and covariation (p=3.1E-08). Some 39% of the CWP and 70% of the LBP heritability estimates were attributable to genetic effects shared by both phenotypes, and 40% and 67% of the residual variation is caused by environmental factors simultaneously affecting both pain syndromes. However, contribution of BMI to variation/covariation of both pain phenotypes-although statistically highly significant (p∼10-7)-was not determinative.
    Annals of Human Genetics 06/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While past twin studies indicate moderate levels of heritability of “obsessive-compulsive related” and anxiety disorder symptoms, no single study has reported such estimates in the same twin population nor examined potential genetic sex differences. We assessed symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, hypochondriasis, panic disorder, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder in 2,495 adult twins (1,468 female). Prevalence estimates for the corresponding symptom measures were determined using empirically derived cut-off scores. Twin resemblance was assessed by Pearson correlations and biometrical model-fitting analyses, incorporating sex-specific effects, using OpenMx. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.6% in the symptoms of generalized anxiety to 16.9% for social phobia. Female twins demonstrated significantly higher prevalence rates across all domains with the exception of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Additive genetic factors accounted for a moderate proportion of the total liability to each symptom domain. Evidence suggesting qualitative genetic sex differences (i.e., distinct genetic influences between genders) was observed for body dysmorphic concern and panic symptoms, while quantitative differences were observed for hoarding and social phobia symptoms, indicating stronger heritability in females. Novel findings in this study include the observation of probable genetic sex differences in liability towards hoarding symptoms and dysmorphic concern, as well as the lack of such differences in hypochondriasis. The trend towards qualitative sex differences in panic symptoms has some intuitive appeal with regard to biological-experimental models of panic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 04/2014; · 3.27 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
43 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014