Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT The association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and cognitive decline has been investigated by only a few studies, with mixed results. The objective of this cross-sectional population-based study was to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D deficiency and cognitive impairment while taking confounders into account.
The subjects, 752 women aged > or =75 years from the Epidémiologie de l'Ostéoporose (EPIDOS) cohort, were divided into 2 groups according to serum 25(OH)D concentrations (either deficient, <10 ng/mL, or nondeficient, > or =10 ng/mL). Cognitive impairment was defined as a Pfeiffer Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire (SPMSQ) score <8. Age, body mass index, number of chronic diseases, hypertension, depression, use of psychoactive drugs, education level, regular physical activity, and serum intact parathyroid hormone and calcium were used as potential confounders.
Compared with women with serum 25(OH)D concentrations > or =10 ng/mL (n = 623), the women with 25(OH)D deficiency (n = 129) had a lower mean SPMSQ score (p < 0.001) and more often had an SPMSQ score <8 (p = 0.006). There was no significant linear association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and SPMSQ score (beta = -0.003, 95% confidence interval -0.012 to 0.006, p = 0.512). However, serum 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with cognitive impairment (crude odds ratio [OR] = 2.08 with p = 0.007; adjusted OR = 1.99 with p = 0.017 for full model; and adjusted OR = 2.03 with p = 0.012 for stepwise backward model).
25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was associated with cognitive impairment in this cohort of community-dwelling older women.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cognitive impairment not due to dementia. This longitudinal study analysed 25(OH)D and the risk of cognitive decline among non-demented older adults. Methods: A subsample of the ESTHER cohort study, aged ≥70 years, was assessed with the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL) and underwent 25(OH)D measurements standardized with a reference method (n = 1,302). After an average follow-up of 4.6 years, 527 participants had repeated COGTEL testing and were eligible for analysis. Linear regression models were used to assess longitudinal associations between 25(OH)D levels and cognitive function. Possible practice effects of repeated cognitive testing were addressed with the reliable change index. Results: A trend of a more pronounced cognitive decline with lower vitamin D levels was observed among both women and men, with a statistically significant difference in COGTEL scores in the lowest vitamin D quintile of the total sample. Conclusions: This study indicates that low levels of vitamin D might be associated with cognitive decline among non-demented elderly individuals and highlights the need for further large-scale prospective studies to clarify the potential role of vitamin D in cognitive function at an old age. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 06/2014; 38(3-4):254-263. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The beneficial effect of vitamin D on bone tissue has long been attributed mainly to its positive effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium and on bone mineralization, which increases the bone mineral density (BMD) and thus decreases the risk of fracture. Recently, numerous extra osseous effects of vitamin D have been described, amongst them a positive effect on neuromuscular and cognitive functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the beneficial effects of vitamin D on fall and fracture risk can be explained more by its action on the neuromuscular and cognitive functions than by its direct effect on bone metabolism. In this review, we first report on the relationships between vitamin D and osteoporotic fracture risk. Then, we present the data from the literature regarding the effects of vitamin D on risk factors such as fall risk and reduction in BMD, physical performance, and cognitive performance. Specific emphasis is put on the latter because there is evidence of a relationship between low concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (the primary indicator of vitamin D status) and low cognitive abilities which have been shown to be a risk factor for falling. It can be further suggested that high risk of fracture in cognitively impaired adults could be explained by lower protective reaction when falling, which would result, for instance, from a lack of planning and foresight of the fall. Future studies are nonetheless needed to elucidate the associations between vitamin D and different risk factors, in particular the link between vitamin D and various cognitive functions.Osteoporosis International 10/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is an important calcium-regulating hormone with diverse functions in numerous tissues, including the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cognitive function and that vitamin D deficiency may accelerate age-related cognitive decline. Using aging rodents, we attempted to model the range of human serum vitamin D levels, from deficient to sufficient, to test whether vitamin D could preserve or improve cognitive function with aging. For 5-6 mo, middle-aged F344 rats were fed diets containing low, medium (typical amount), or high (100, 1,000, or 10,000 international units/kg diet, respectively) vitamin D3, and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory were then tested in the Morris water maze. Rats on high vitamin D achieved the highest blood levels (in the sufficient range) and significantly outperformed low and medium groups on maze reversal, a particularly challenging task that detects more subtle changes in memory. In addition to calcium-related processes, hippocampal gene expression microarrays identified pathways pertaining to synaptic transmission, cell communication, and G protein function as being up-regulated with high vitamin D. Basal synaptic transmission also was enhanced, corroborating observed effects on gene expression and learning and memory. Our studies demonstrate a causal relationship between vitamin D status and cognitive function, and they suggest that vitamin D-mediated changes in hippocampal gene expression may improve the likelihood of successful brain aging.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor