Prevalence of Proteinuria Among HIV-infected Children Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria
ABSTRACT Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicentre of the HIV pandemic but there are few reports of HIV-related kidney diseases in children in this region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of proteinuria in HIV-infected children at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Proteinuria was determined using urine protein-creatinine ratio. CD4+ cell count was determined for all the HIV-infected children. The mean age of the HIV-infected children was 74.4 +/- 35.6 months with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Compared with 6% of the 50 controls 20.5% of the 88 HIV-infected children had proteinuria (p = 0.026). Of 20 children with advanced clinical stage 40% had proteinuria compared with 14.7% of 68 children with milder stage (p = 0.004). Similarly, proteinuria was commoner among those with severe immunosuppression (p = 0.014). HAART use was not associated with significant difference in proteinuria prevalence (p = 0.491). Proteinuria was frequent among HIV-infected children, especially among those with advanced disease.
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- "HIVAN progresses to ESRD but if detected early, this progression can be slowed or even halted with the use of HAART . The commonest manifestation of HIVAN is proteinuria,   which has been described in HIV-positive children   and Esezobor and colleague  in Nigeria documented a prevalence of 20.5% in HIVpositive Nigerian children. Microalbuminuria is a predictor of subclinical renal involvement in systemic diseases including HIVAN . "
ABSTRACT: Background. Human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a rapidly progressive chronic renal parenchymal disease that occurs in HIV-infected individuals and manifests commonly as proteinuria, which is preceded by microalbuminuria (MA). This clinical entity is defined as a spot urine albumin of 20-200 mg/L. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in HIV positive children in UNTH, Enugu and compare it with that of HIV-negative children. Methods. A total of 154 HIV positive children aged 18 months to 14 years and 154 HIV-negative children of corresponding attributes were screened for microalbuminuria, using Micral test II strip which has a sensitivity of 90-99%. Results. No child among the groups (HIV positive and negative) had microalbuminuria. Majority (96.0%) of HIV-positive children had nonadvanced HIV disease at the time of the study (P = 0.00). About 77.3% were using HAART (P < 0.0001), the mean CD4 cell count of the subjects was 709.2 ± 443.9 cells/mm(3); while 78.0% had nonsevere immunosuppression (P = 0.00). Furthermore, HIV-positive children with severe immunosuppression were younger and had shorter duration of treatment. Conclusion. Microalbuminuria may not be very common in Nigerian children irrespective of their HIV status.07/2012; 2012:805834. DOI:10.1155/2012/805834
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ABSTRACT: Par une étude transversale, nous avons voulu déterminer la prévalence de la protéinurie chez des enfants suivis pour infection à VIH à Ouagadougou. Ont été inclus 122 enfants âgés de 0 à 16 ans. La protéinurie était présente à 1 « + » ou plus chez 18 enfants (14,8%), 14 garçons et 4 filles, d’âge moyen 10,4 ± 3,3 ans qui prenaient tous un traitement antirétroviral (ARV) depuis 40 ± 24 mois en moyenne. Aucun traitement ne comportait du ténofovir, de l’indinavir ou un inhibiteur de l’enzyme de conversion. La prévalence de la protéinurie dans notre échantillon, quoique surestimée du fait de la méthode de dosage, est plus faible que celle rapportée par d’autres auteurs africains chez des sujets non traités. Cela suggère une néphroprotection des ARV chez nos patients. Toutefois, la microalbuminurie, marqueur précoce possible de la néphropathie à VIH, n’a pas été évaluée par notre étude. Rechercher systématiquement la microalbuminurie chez les enfants sous traitement par ARV contribuerait à dépister et à prendre précocement en charge d’éventuelles maladies glomérulaires chroniques, particulièrement celles liées au VIH.Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/2013; 106(1). DOI:10.1007/s13149-012-0270-9
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ABSTRACT: In most historical studies, link cost function applied in solving the dynamic traffic assignment problem is assumed as a separable function of link flaw itself. Further developments of a non-linear theory for the network dynamics in the presence of hyperbolic traffic behavior are presented in this paper. By dividing a time period of interest into several minute intervals, both day-to-day and within-day evolutions of system variables are embedded in the proposed formulation simultaneously. In particular, dynamic traffic flow model, the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards model, is introduced into whole system dynamics and the corresponding path cost operator is also derived. Based on this methodology, the network traffic dynamics simulator (NTDS) is developed and the simulation results of a real road network at Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park (HSIP) are also presented. We numerically show that the steady state of proposed dynamic system satisfies the Wardrop's user equilibrium.Networking, Sensing and Control, 2004 IEEE International Conference on; 02/2004