Acute effect of environmental temperature during exercise on subsequent energy intake in active men
ABSTRACT The performance of exercise while immersed in cold water has been shown to influence energy intake in the subsequent meal. However, the effect of ambient temperature during land-based exercise is not known.
Our aims were to investigate the effect of exercise performed in the heat on energy intake in the subsequent meal and to determine concentrations of circulating appetite-related hormones.
In a randomized, counterbalanced design, 11 active male participants completed 3 experimental trials in a fasted state: exercise in the heat (36 degrees C), exercise in a neutral temperature (25 degrees C), and a resting control (25 degrees C). The exercise trials consisted of treadmill running for 40 min at 70% VO(2peak). After each trial, participants were presented with a buffet-type breakfast of precisely known quantity and nutrient composition, which they could consume ad libitum.
Energy intake was greater after exercise in the neutral temperature compared with the control (P = 0.021) but was similar between exercise in the heat and the control and between the 2 exercise trials. When accounting for the excess energy expended during exercise, relative energy intake during exercise in the heat was lower than the control (P = 0.002) but was similar between exercise in the neutral temperature and the control and between exercise in the heat and in the neutral temperature. The lower relative energy intake after exercise in the heat was associated with an elevated tympanic temperature and circulating concentrations of peptide YY (P < 0.05).
Exercise in a neutral environmental temperature is associated with higher energy intake in the subsequent meal compared with a control, whereas exercise in the heat is not.
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ABSTRACT: Gastric emptying (GE) could influence exercise-induced changes in appetite and energy intake. GE also could contribute to changes in gastric symptoms and the availability of nutrients during exercise, which will subsequently affect performance.Sports Medicine 11/2014; 45(5). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0285-4 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.Nutrients 11/2014; 6(11):4935-4960. DOI:10.3390/nu6114935 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Exercise in cold water has been shown to simulate postexercise energy intake (EI) in normal-weight individuals. However, the effect of cold exercise on EI in overweight individuals has yet to be examined. The present study investigated the effect of brisk walking in a cold (8 degrees C) and neutral (20 degrees C) environment on postexercise EI and appetite hormone responses. Methods Sixteen overweight participants (10 men and six women; age, 50.1 11.6 yr; body mass index, 28.9 4.2 kgm(-2)) completed a 45-min treadmill walk at 8 degrees C and 20 degrees C in a randomized counterbalanced design. Participants were presented with an ad libitum buffet meal 45 min after exercise, and EI was covertly measured. Skin and rectal temperature were monitored throughout exercise and for 30 min after exercise, and concentrations of the appetite hormones total ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, and total peptide YY were assessed before and after exercise and before and after meal. Results EI was significantly greater after exercise in the cold (1299 +/- 657 kcal (mean +/- SD)) compared with that after exercise in the neutral environment (1172 +/- 537 kcal (mean +/- SD)) (P < 0.05). The change in the acylated ghrelin concentrations and the acylated ghrelin AUC values were significantly greater during walking in the cold versus those during walking in the neutral condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings show that in overweight individuals, exercise in the cold stimulates postexercise EI to a greater extent than exercise in a neutral environment.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 05/2014; 47(1). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000391 · 4.46 Impact Factor