Cardiovascular Disease Risk Biomarkers and Liver and Kidney Function Are Not Altered in Postmenopausal Women after Ingesting an Elderberry Extract Rich in Anthocyanins for 12 Weeks
ABSTRACT Growing evidence supports a cardio-protective role for anthocyanins; however, there is limited evidence on their efficacy and safety following the consumption of relatively high but dietarily achievable doses in humans. We conducted a parallel-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of chronic consumption of anthocyanins on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and liver and kidney function in 52 healthy postmenopausal women (n = 26 in treatment and placebo groups). Volunteers (BMI, 24.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2); age, 58.2 +/- 5.6 y) consumed 500 mg/d anthocyanins as cyanidin glycosides (from elderberry) or placebo for 12 wk (2 capsules twice/d). At the beginning (wk 0) and end of the 12-wk intervention, levels of anthocyanins and biomarkers of CVD (inflammatory biomarkers, platelet reactivity, lipids, and glucose) and liver and kidney function (total bilirubin, albumin, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutyl transferase) were assessed in fasted blood. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and pulse measurements were also taken. In addition, postprandial plasma anthocyanins were measured (t = 1, 2, 3 h) following a 500-mg oral bolus dose. After 12 wk of chronic exposure to anthocyanins, there was no significant change in biomarkers of CVD risk and liver and kidney function remained within clinically acceptable ranges. We observed no plasma accumulation of anthocyanins; however, postprandial metabolism increased (P = 0.02). In conclusion, these data suggest that chronic consumption of 500 mg/d of elderberry extract for 12 wk is apparently safe, but ineffective in altering biomarkers of CVD risk in healthy postmenopausal women.
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- "The study design has been previously described in detail . The ACN content of the elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract was previously established as 250 mg ACN per gram of extract , predominantly consisting of cyanidin-3-glucoside (53.5%) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside (39.5%) . Elderberries are also reported to contain low amounts of cyanidin-3- sambubioside-5-glucoside (6%) and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside (1%) . "
ABSTRACT: Increased tissue status of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits in humans. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, specifically anthocyanins (ACNs), may increase EPA and DHA levels potentially by increasing their synthesis from shorter chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of ACNs and ACN-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with ACNs for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomised controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (Experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select ACNs and their in vivo metabolites for 24h and 48h (Experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissue samples were analysed by gas chromatography. ACNs and ACN-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA concentration or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary ACNs on n-3 PUFA concentrations and suggest that the increasingly recognised benefits of ACNs on a range of health outcomes is unlikely to be due to a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10/2014; 26(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.09.005 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nowadays it is accepted that natural flavonoids present in fruits and plant-derived-foods are relevant, not only for technological reasons and organoleptic properties, but also because of their potential health-promoting effects, as suggested by the available experimental and epidemiological evidence. The beneficial biological effects of these food bioactives may be driven by two of their characteristic properties: their affinity for proteins and their antioxidant activity. Over the last 15 years, numerous publications have demonstrated that besides their in vitro antioxidant capacity, certain phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, and other non coloured flavonoids, may regulate different signaling pathways involved in cell survival, growth and differentiation. In this review we will update the knowledge on the cardiovascular effects of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins, as implied by the in vitro and clinical studies on these compounds. We also review the available information on the structure, distribution and bioavailability of flavanols (monomeric catechins and proanthocyanidins) and anthocyanins, data necessary in order to understand their role in reducing risk factors and preventing cardiovascular health problems through different aspects of their bioefficacy on vascular parameters (platelet agregation, atherosclerosis, blood pressure, antioxidant status, inflammation-related markers, etc.), myocardial conditions, and whole-body metabolism (serum biochemistry, lipid profile), highlighting the need for better-designed clinical studies to improve the current knowledge on the potential health benefits of these flavonoids to cardiovascular and metabolic health.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 04/2010; 11(4):1679-703. DOI:10.3390/ijms11041679 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among all fruits, berries have shown substantial cardio-protective benefits due to their high polyphenol content. However, investigation of their efficacy in improving features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors in obesity is limited. We examined the effects of blueberry supplementation on features of metabolic syndrome, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in obese men and women. Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2); age: 50.0 +/- 3.0 y (mean +/- SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, approximately 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (- 6 and - 4%, respectively) than in controls (- 1.5 and - 1.2%) (P lt 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (- 28 and - 17%, respectively) than in the control group (- 9 and - 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses.Journal of Nutrition 09/2010; 140(9):1582-7. DOI:10.3945/jn.110.124701 · 4.23 Impact Factor