Cardiovascular Disease Risk Biomarkers and Liver and Kidney Function Are Not Altered in Postmenopausal Women after Ingesting an Elderberry Extract Rich in Anthocyanins for 12 Weeks

School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 09/2009; 139(12):2266-71. DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.113126
Source: PubMed


Growing evidence supports a cardio-protective role for anthocyanins; however, there is limited evidence on their efficacy and safety following the consumption of relatively high but dietarily achievable doses in humans. We conducted a parallel-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of chronic consumption of anthocyanins on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and liver and kidney function in 52 healthy postmenopausal women (n = 26 in treatment and placebo groups). Volunteers (BMI, 24.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2); age, 58.2 +/- 5.6 y) consumed 500 mg/d anthocyanins as cyanidin glycosides (from elderberry) or placebo for 12 wk (2 capsules twice/d). At the beginning (wk 0) and end of the 12-wk intervention, levels of anthocyanins and biomarkers of CVD (inflammatory biomarkers, platelet reactivity, lipids, and glucose) and liver and kidney function (total bilirubin, albumin, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutyl transferase) were assessed in fasted blood. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and pulse measurements were also taken. In addition, postprandial plasma anthocyanins were measured (t = 1, 2, 3 h) following a 500-mg oral bolus dose. After 12 wk of chronic exposure to anthocyanins, there was no significant change in biomarkers of CVD risk and liver and kidney function remained within clinically acceptable ranges. We observed no plasma accumulation of anthocyanins; however, postprandial metabolism increased (P = 0.02). In conclusion, these data suggest that chronic consumption of 500 mg/d of elderberry extract for 12 wk is apparently safe, but ineffective in altering biomarkers of CVD risk in healthy postmenopausal women.

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    • "The study design has been previously described in detail [16]. The ACN content of the elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract was previously established as 250 mg ACN per gram of extract [16], predominantly consisting of cyanidin-3-glucoside (53.5%) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside (39.5%) [19]. Elderberries are also reported to contain low amounts of cyanidin-3- sambubioside-5-glucoside (6%) and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside (1%) [20]. "
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    • "Also, in the study of Karlsen et al., supplementation with 330 mL bilberry juice/day for 4 weeks resulted in significant decrease in plasma concentrations of CRP [32]. Conversely, others have shown no significant effects [33–35]. Considering a slight decrease in hs-CRP by V. arctostaphylos (in contrast to placebo) observed in our study, the use of higher doses of this extract for longer periods may have more significant effect on this inflammatory marker. "
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