Kinetics of host immune responses and cytomegalovirus resistance in a liver transplant patient.
ABSTRACT Among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, donor-seropositive/recipient-seronegative (D+/R-) cytomegalovirus (CMV) status is associated with the highest risk of ganciclovir-resistant CMV disease, which has been reported for patients receiving oral ganciclovir but not valganciclovir prophylaxis. We report a case of CMV breakthrough infection in a D+/R- liver transplant patient while he was receiving oral valganciclovir. Forty samples collected over 6 months were analyzed for the CMV viral load, lymphocyte counts, cytokine levels, and lymphocyte differentiation status. Genotypic resistance testing of the viral UL97 gene was performed when the patient failed to respond. CMV viremia occurred on day 50 post-transplant, and 5 samples taken between days 50 and 85 showed the wild-type UL97 genotype. The appearance of deletion 594-595 was observed from day 114 post-transplant. Viral loads declined when foscarnet was commenced and remained below 10,000 copies/mL when the lymphocyte count was greater than 1000/microL (P = 0.02). T cell responses revealed significant expansion of CD8+ terminal effector memory cells. CD4+ cells were largely populations of naïve and central memory cells. Circulating interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels correlated with the viral load (P < 0.0001). Seroconversion occurred on day 230. The CMV viral load in combination with lymphocyte counts and IL-10 may be a predictive marker for the risk of development of resistant CMV disease in D+/R- SOT patients.
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ABSTRACT: The study of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antiviral drug resistance has enhanced knowledge of the virological targets and the mechanisms of antiviral activity. The currently approved drugs, ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (FOS), and cidofovir (CDV), target the viral DNA polymerase. GCV anabolism also requires phosphorylation by the virus-encoded UL97 kinase. GCV resistance mutations have been identified in both genes, while FOS and CDV mutations occur only in the DNA polymerase gene. Confirmation of resistance mutations requires phenotypic analysis; however, phenotypic assays are too time-consuming for diagnostic purposes. Genotypic assays based on sequencing provide more rapid results but are dependent on prior validation by phenotypic methods. Reports from many laboratories have produced an evolving list of confirmed resistance mutations, although differences in interpretation have led to some confusion. Recombinant phenotyping methods performed in a few research laboratories have resolved some of the conflicting results. Treatment options for drug-resistant HCMV infections are complex and have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, although consensus guidelines have been proposed. This review summarizes the virological and clinical data pertaining to HCMV antiviral drug resistance.Clinical microbiology reviews 10/2010; 23(4):689-712. · 14.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication after adult orthotopic liver transplantation (AOLT). Besides EBV and immunosuppression, relatively little is known about the pretransplant clinical parameters associated with the risk of PTLD, and the benefit of using EBV surveillance to predict EBV-associated disease in AOLT patients is uncertain. The aims of this single-center study were to monitor EBV viral loads (VLs) in AOLT patients and to investigate any associations with age, sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus, posttransplant times, and indications for transplantation. 1275 blood samples that were collected from 197 AOLT patients 1 day to more than 15 years after transplantation were investigated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction for EBV and CMV DNA. Seventy-two percent of the patients had EBV DNAemia less than 100 days after transplantation without clinical manifestations. No association was observed between the EBV copy numbers and the time since transplantation. EBV DNAemia was weakly associated with male sex but was not associated with age, CMV serostatus, or indications for AOLT. The highest EBV VL levels were observed in patients who presented with congenital liver diseases, whereas patients with viral hepatitis maintained high EBV VLs after transplantation. None of the patients developed PTLD during the study period; however, 3 patients presented with EBV-associated diseases. In conclusion, EBV DNAemia is common in AOLT patients, and routine EBV surveillance has limited value for predicting EBV-associated morbidity or mortality.Liver Transplantation 08/2011; 17(12):1420-6. · 3.94 Impact Factor