Gap balancing versus measured resection technique for total knee arthroplasty.

Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Impact Factor: 2.79). 09/2009; 468(1):102-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-009-1112-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple differing surgical techniques are currently utilized to perform total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared knee arthroplasties performed using either a measured resection or gap balancing technique to determine if either operative technique provides superior coronal plane stability as measured by assessment of the incidence and magnitude of femoral condylar lift-off. We performed 40 TKA using a measured resection technique (20 PCL-retaining and 20 PCL-substituting) and 20 PCL-substituting TKA were implanted using gap balancing. All subjects were analyzed fluoroscopically while performing a deep knee bend. The incidence of coronal instability (femoral condylar lift-off) was then determined using a 3-D model fitting technique. The incidence of lift-off greater than 0.75 mm was 80% (maximum, 2.9 mm) and 70% (maximum, 2.5 mm) for the PCL-retaining and substituting TKA groups performed using measured resection versus 35% (maximum, 0.88 mm) for the gap-balanced group. Lift-off greater than 1 mm occurred in 60% and 45% of the PCL-retaining and -substituting TKA using measured resection versus none in the gap-balanced group. Rotation of the femoral component using a gap balancing technique resulted in better coronal stability which we suggest will improve functional performance and reduce polyethylene wear.

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