Article

Modifiers of von Willebrand factor identified by natural variation in inbred strains of mice.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.06). 09/2009; 114(26):5368-74. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-07-233213
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited human bleeding disorder. However, diagnosis is complicated by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, as well as wide variation in von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels among the normal population. Previous work has exploited the highly variable plasma VWF levels among inbred strains of mice to identify 2 major regulators, Mvwf1 and Mvwf2 (modifier of VWF). Mvwf1 is a glycosyltransferase and Mvwf2 is a natural variant in Vwf that alters biosynthesis. We report the identification of an additional alteration at the Vwf locus (Mvwf5), as well as 2 loci unlinked to Vwf (Mvwf6-7) using a backcross approach with the inbred mouse strains WSB/EiJ and C57BL/6J. Through positional cloning, we show that Mvwf5 is a cis-regulatory variant that alters Vwf mRNA expression. A similar mechanism could potentially explain a significant percentage of human VWD cases, especially those with no detectable mutation in the VWF coding sequence. Mvwf6 displays conservation of synteny with potential VWF modifier loci identified in human pedigrees, suggesting that its ortholog may modify VWF in human populations.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
70 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a potentially life-threatening condition. It often occurs after gastrointestinal infection with E. coli O157:H7, which produces Shiga toxins (Stx) that cause hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal injury. Stx-mediated changes in endothelial phenotype have been linked to the pathogenesis of HUS. Here we report our studies investigating Stx-induced changes in gene expression and their contribution to the pathogenesis of HUS. Stx function by inactivating host ribosomes but can also alter gene expression at concentrations that minimally affect global protein synthesis. Gene expression profiling of human microvascular endothelium treated with Stx implicated a role for activation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 by their shared cognate chemokine ligand (stromal cell-derived factor-1 [SDF-1]) in Stx-mediated pathophysiology. The changes in gene expression required a catalytically active Stx A subunit and were mediated by enhanced transcription and mRNA stability. Stx also enhanced the association of CXCR4, CXCR7, and SDF1 mRNAs with ribosomes. In a mouse model of Stx-mediated pathology, we noted changes in plasma and tissue content of CXCR4, CXCR7, and SDF-1 after Stx exposure. Furthermore, inhibition of the CXCR4/SDF-1 interaction decreased endothelial activation and organ injury and improved animal survival. Finally, in children infected with E. coli O157:H7, plasma SDF-1 levels were elevated in individuals who progressed to HUS. Collectively, these data implicate the CXCR4/CXCR7/SDF-1 pathway in Stx-mediated pathogenesis and suggest novel therapeutic strategies for prevention and/or treatment of complications associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2012; 122(2):759-76. · 15.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Up until recently, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) structure-function relationships have only been studied through in vitro approaches. A powerful technique known as hydrodynamic gene transfer, which allows transient expression of a transgene by mouse hepatocytes, has led to an important shift in VWF research. Indeed this approach has now enabled us to transiently express a number of VWF mutants in VWF-deficient mice in order to test the relative importance of specific residues in different aspects of VWF biology and functions in an in vivo setting. As a result, mice reproducing various types of von Willebrand disease have been generated, models that will be useful to test new therapies. This approach also allowed a more precise identification of the importance of VWF interaction with subendothelial collagens and with platelets receptors in hemostasis and thrombosis. The recent advances gathered from these studies as well as the pros and cons of the technique will be reviewed here.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 01/2013; 5(1):e2013047.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cessation of bleeding after trauma is a necessary evolutionary vertebrate adaption for survival. One of the major pathways regulating response to hemorrhage is the coagulation cascade, which ends with the cleavage of fibrinogen to form a stable clot. Patients with low or absent fibrinogen are at risk for bleeding. While much detailed information is known about fibrinogen regulation and function through studies of humans and mammalian models, bleeding risk in patients cannot always be accurately predicted purely based on fibrinogen levels, suggesting an influence of modifying factors and a need for additional genetic models. The zebrafish has orthologs to the three components of fibrinogen (fga, fgb, and fgg), but it hasn't yet been shown that zebrafish fibrinogen functions to prevent bleeding in vivo. Here we show that zebrafish fibrinogen is incorporated into an induced thrombus, and deficiency results in hemorrhage. An Fgb-eGFP fusion protein is incorporated into a developing thrombus induced by laser injury, but causes bleeding in adult transgenic fish. Antisense morpholino knockdown results in intracranial and intramuscular hemorrhage at 3 days post fertilization. The observed phenotypes are consistent with symptoms exhibited by patients with hypo- and afibrinogenemia. These data demonstrate that zebrafish possess highly conserved orthologs of the fibrinogen chains, which function similarly to mammals through the formation of a fibrin clot.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74682. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from