Hantavirus Infection in the Republic of Georgia
Technology Management Company, Tbilisi, Georgia.Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 09/2009; 15(9):1489-91. DOI: 10.3201/eid1509.090617
We describe a laboratory-confirmed case of hantavirus infection in the Republic of Georgia. Limited information is available about hantavirus infections in the Caucasus, although the infection has been reported throughout Europe and Russia. Increasing awareness and active disease surveillance contribute to our improved understanding of the geographic range of this pathogen.
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ABSTRACT: To explore the value of cystatin C for evaluating acute kidney injury (AKI) in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the concentrations of cystatin C in serum and urine samples from HFRS patients were determined. The serum and urinary cystatin C concentrations significantly increased in HFRS patients compared with normal controls (p < 0.001). In the acute phase of HFRS, urinary cystatin C increased to higher levels than serum creatinine, especially in severe or critical cases in the oliguric stage. Furthermore, higher levels of urinary cystatin C in the acute phase positively correlated with increased severity of the subsequent kidney injury. In conclusion, urinary cystatin C is a more sensitive clinical marker for AKI in HFRS, which may enable us to initiate treatment measures as early as possible.Biomarkers 05/2010; 15(5):410-7. DOI:10.3109/1354750X.2010.482214 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses which are the members of Bunyaviridae, differ from other members of this family since they are transmitted to humans by rodents. More than 200.000 cases of hantavirus infections are reported annually worldwide. Hantaviruses can lead to two different types of infection in humans, namely, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is the most common type of hantavirus infection in Europe and Asia and the most common virus types are Dobrava, Puumala, Hantaan and Seoul. A total of 25 hantavirus suspected cases have been reported from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey and 12 of these were confirmed serologically as "Puumala" subtype. Serological tests such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), are used for diagnosis and typing of the hantaviruses, however, since cross-reactions are common between the subtypes, the results of these tests should be confirmed by other methods. In this report two cases with hantavirus infection defined serologically were presented. Two male patients, 55 and 50 years old, respectively, living in Giresun province of Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey, were admitted to the State Hospital with the complaints of fever, sweating and diarrhoea without blood or mucus. Since thrombocytopenia and renal failure were detected in these two cases, they were transferred to the University Hospital. Presence of fever, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, with no laboratory findings of a bacterial infection and no growth of microoorganisms in the clinical specimens, admittance of the patients during summer and history of being present in the fields, necessitated to rule out leptospirosis, Crimean Kongo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus infection which were all endemic in our area. Further investigation of the serum samples at the National Reference Virology Laboratory by IFA (Hantavirus Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) revealed hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies ≥ 1:100 titer and the results were confirmed by immunoblot test (Hantavirus Profile 1 EUROLINE IgG and IgM, Euroimmun, Germany). Hantavirus Dobrava subtype was determined in both of the cases. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (Hantavirus Renal Syndrome General-type I&II Real Time RT-PCR; Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tech, China) revealed negative result. The first case was discharged with complete cure, however, the second case died. These cases which were the first cases from the Eastern Black Sea Region emphasized that hantavirus infections should be taken into consideration in patients presenting with fever, thrombocytopenia and renal function disturbance.Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 07/2010; 44(3):479-87. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses as a member of the family Bunyaviridae are RNA viruses with enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded segmental genome. Today, more than 20 different Hantavirus species are recognized. Eleven of them cause clinical symptoms in humans. Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Dobrava (DOBV), Seoul viruses causes different forms of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), since Sin Nombre virus and Sin Nombre-like viruses found especially in the United States causes hantaviruses pulmonary syndrome (HPS) with high mortality. In our country, infections have been reported with subtypes of the Hantaviruses firstly PUUV in the Western Black Sea region, then DOBV from Giresun and Kastamonu. A case of Hantavirus infection similarly in the form of RSHF from the rural area of Kazan district in Ankara has been reported in this article. Sixty-seven-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of dizziness, fever and fatigue in June of 2011. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia elevated liver enzymes and creatinine was detected in laboratory investigations at emergency room. The patient hospitalized and followed with initial diagnosis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF). Further investigation of the serum samples at the Refik Saydam Hygiene Center and Research Laboratory of Virology with indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) ((Hantaviruses Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) resulted in weakly positivity of anti-hantavirus IgM and IgG. The first serum samples revealed negative by immunoblot test (Euroimmun, Germany). After 11 days second sample of patient revealed DOBV positivite with both IFA and immunoblot serologically. In-house RT - Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test was found to be negative in the first serum sample of the patient. This case is important of being the first HFRS infection reported from Ankara.Türk hijiyen ve deneysel biyoloji dergisi. Turkish bulletin of hygiene and experimental biology 01/2013; 70(1):27-32. DOI:10.5505/TurkHijyen.2013.50103