Second Asia-Pacific Consensus Guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 529889.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Impact Factor: 3.33). 10/2009; 24(10):1587-600. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05982.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Asia-Pacific Consensus Conference was convened to review and synthesize the most current information on Helicobacter pylori management so as to update the previously published regional guidelines. The group recognized that in addition to long-established indications, such as peptic ulcer disease, early mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma and family history of gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication was also indicated for H. pylori infected patients with functional dyspepsia, in those receiving long-term maintenance proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for gastroesophageal reflux disease, and in cases of unexplained iron deficiency anemia or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In addition, a population 'test and treat' strategy for H. pylori infection in communities with high incidence of gastric cancer was considered to be an effective strategy for gastric cancer prevention. It was recommended that H. pylori infection should be tested for and eradicated prior to long-term aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy in patients at high risk for ulcers and ulcer-related complications. In Asia, the currently recommended first-line therapy for H. pylori infection is PPI-based triple therapy with amoxicillin/metronidazole and clarithromycin for 7 days, while bismuth-based quadruple therapy is an effective alternative. There appears to be an increasing rate of resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole in parts of Asia, leading to reduced efficacy of PPI-based triple therapy. There are insufficient data to recommend sequential therapy as an alternative first-line therapy in Asia. Salvage therapies that can be used include: (i) standard triple therapy that has not been previously used; (ii) bismuth-based quadruple therapy; (iii) levofloxacin-based triple therapy; and (iv) rifabutin-based triple therapy. Both CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and cigarette smoking can influence future H. pylori eradication rates.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 05/2014; 20(19):5660-5665.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) at a younger age is considered to be effective in preventing gastric cancer. This study assessed the characteristics of eradication therapy in young patients. We enrolled 1073 patients with H. pylori infection between 2000 and 2013. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age into the young (≤30 years), middle-aged (31-50 years), and elder (≥51 years) groups. We also examined 472 cases to investigate clinical eradication characteristics. The rate of clarithromycin (CAM) resistance was 57.9%, 34.5%, and 35.2% in the young, middle-aged, and elder group, respectively, in 2012-2013 and was significantly higher in the young group than in the elder group (p = .01). Metronidazole (MNZ) resistance was similar among the three groups at each time point. While CAM resistance rose over the study period, MNZ resistance was noted to have decreased of late. The overall initial eradication success rate was 91.9% (95% CI, 89.1-94.1) in our cohort. Eradication efficiency was comparable in the young, middle-aged, and elder group at 94.3% (95% CI, 87.4-97.5), 90.2% (95% CI, 82.9-94.6), and 91.8% (95% CI, 88.1-94.5) respectively. Side effects such as skin rash were observed in 14.8%, 3.9%, and 3.5% of the respective groups. There were significant differences in the incidence of side effects between the young group and other groups (p < .05, respectively). Since CAM resistance and the incidence of side effects are higher in young individuals, it is especially important to select eradication regimens based on testing for antimicrobial susceptibility.
    Helicobacter 06/2014; 19(3):214-20. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than half of the world's human population, but only 1% to 3% of infected people consequently develop gastric adenocarcinomas. The clinical outcome of the infection is determined by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. The association between H. pylori infection and chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been well established. With the exception of unexplained iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, H. pylori infection has no proven role in extraintestinal diseases. On the other hand, there is data showing that H. pylori infection could be beneficial for some human diseases. The unpredictability of the long-term consequences of H. pylori infection and the economic challenge in eradicating it is why identification of high-risk individuals is crucial.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 06/2014; 20(21):6386-6399.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014