Herpes simplex virus-1 helicase-primase: roles of each subunit in DNA binding and phosphodiester bond formation.
ABSTRACT The helicase-primase complex from herpes simplex virus-1 contains three subunits, UL5, UL52, and UL8. We generated each of the potential two-subunit complexes, UL5-UL52, UL5-UL8, and UL52-UL8, and used a series of kinetic and photo-cross-linking studies to provide further insights into the roles of each subunit in DNA binding and primer synthesis. UL8 increases the rate of primer synthesis by UL5-UL52 by increasing the rate of primer initiation (two NTPs --> pppNpN), the rate-limiting step in primer synthesis. The UL5-UL8 complex lacked any detectable catalytic activity (DNA-dependent ATPase, primase, or RNA polymerase using a RNA primer-template and NTPs as substrates) but could still bind DNA, indicating that UL52 must provide some key amino acids needed for helicase function. The UL52-UL8 complex lacked detectable DNA-dependent ATPase activity and could not synthesize primers on single-stranded DNA. However, it exhibited robust RNA polymerase activity using a RNA primer-template and NTPs as substrates. Thus, UL52 must contain the entire primase active site needed for phosphodiester bond formation, while UL5 minimally contributes amino acids needed for the initiation of primer synthesis. Photo-cross-linking experiments using single-stranded templates containing 5-iodouracil either before, in, or after the canonical 3'-GPyPy (Py is T or C) initiation site for primer synthesis showed that only UL5 cross-linked to the DNA. This occurred for the UL5-UL52, UL5-UL52-UL8, and UL5-UL8 complexes and whether the reaction mixtures contained NTPs. Photo-cross-linking of a RNA primer-template, the product of primer synthesis, containing 5-iodouracil in the template generated the same apparent cross-linked species.
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ABSTRACT: The intracellular folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 has been assessed by analyzing the ability of the glycoprotein to bind to the viral receptor CD4. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that the glycoprotein was initially produced in a conformation that was unable to bind to CD4 and that the protein attained the appropriate tertiary structure for binding with a half-life of approximately 30 min. The protein appears to fold within the rough endoplasmic reticulum, since blocking of transport to the Golgi apparatus by the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone did not appear to perturb the folding kinetics of the molecule. The relatively lengthy folding time was not due to modification of the large number of N-linked glycosylation sites on gp120, since inhibition of the first steps in oligosaccharide modification by the inhibitors deoxynojirimycin or deoxymannojirimycin did not impair the CD4-binding activity of the glycoprotein. However, production of the glycoprotein in the presence of tunicamycin and removal of the N-linked sugars by endoglycosidase H treatment both resulted in deglycosylated proteins that were unable to bind to CD4, suggesting in agreement with previous results, that glycosylation contributes to the ability of gp120 to bind to CD4. Interestingly, incomplete endoglycosidase H treatment revealed that a partially glycosylated glycoprotein could bind to the receptor, implying that a subset of glycosylation sites, perhaps some of those conserved in different isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, might be important for binding of the viral glycoprotein to the CD4 receptor.Journal of Virology 03/1989; 63(2):639-46. · 5.40 Impact Factor