Phytosterol plasma concentrations and coronary heart disease in the prospective Spanish EPIC cohort.
ABSTRACT Phytosterol intake with natural foods, a measure of healthy dietary choices, increases plasma levels, but increased plasma phytosterols are believed to be a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. To address this paradox, we evaluated baseline risk factors, phytosterol intake, and plasma noncholesterol sterol levels in participants of a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort who developed CHD (n = 299) and matched controls (n = 584) who remained free of CHD after a 10 year follow-up. Sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratios increased across tertiles of phytosterol intake (P = 0.026). HDL-cholesterol level increased, and adiposity measures, cholesterol/HDL ratios, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and lathosterol, a cholesterol synthesis marker, decreased across plasma sitosterol tertiles (P < 0.02; all). Compared with controls, cases had nonsignificantly lower median levels of phytosterol intake and plasma sitosterol. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CHD across the lowest to highest plasma sitosterol tertile was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.97). Associations were weaker for plasma campesterol. The apolipoprotein E genotype was unrelated to CHD risk or plasma phytosterols. The data suggest that plasma sitosterol levels are associated with a lower CHD risk while being markers of a lower cardiometabolic risk in the EPIC-Spain cohort, a population with a high phytosterol intake.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have shown functional complementation of a genetic deficiency in human cultured cells, using artificial chromosomes derived from cloned human genomic fragments. A 404-kb human-artificial-chromosome (HAC) vector, consisting of 220 kb of alphoid DNA from the centromere of chromosome 17, human telomeres, and the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) genomic locus, was transferred to HPRT-deficient HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We generated several cell lines with low-copy-number, megabase-sized HACs containing a functional centromere and one or possibly several copies of the HPRT1 gene complementing the metabolic deficiency. The HACs consisted of alternating alphoid and nonalphoid DNA segments derived only from the input DNA (within the sensitivity limits of FISH detection), and the largest continuous alphoid segment was 158-250 kb. The study of both the structure and mitotic stability of these HACs offers insights into the mechanisms of centromere formation in synthetic chromosomes and will further the development of this human-gene-transfer technology.The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2001; 69(2):315-26. · 10.60 Impact Factor