Article

PEComa of the nasal septum

Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.72). 10/2009; 141(4):543-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.otohns.2009.03.009
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    ABSTRACT: Neoplasms showing perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas) are uncommon tumors of the sinonasal tract. They are often misdiagnosed as angiomyolipoma or a simple benign tumor or polyp. We present a further case of a sinonasal PEComa and review the literature in an attempt to ascertain their malignant potential. Published evidence on invasiveness and characteristics were defined on systematic review. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 1966 and 1980, respectively, to week 3 of December 2010. Publications reporting PEComa or angiomyolipoma were sought. Only those describing a sinonasal origin were included. Demographics, anatomic site, local invasion, recurrence rates, and mortality were recorded. A case report of a locally invasive intranasal PEComa is described. In addition to the case we present, 12 case reports were located (n = 13). The mean age of patients was 59.6 (SD, 14.98 years) years. The location was within the right sinonasal tract in 54% of cases, the left sinonasal tract in 38% of cases, and not reported in 8% of cases. Treatment focused on local surgical excision and this was achieved endoscopically in 100% of cases. Recurrence rate was 8%. Mean follow-up was 17.4 (SD, 20.68 months) months. Invasion was noted in 23% of cases. There was a single death recorded. PEComas of the paranasal sinuses and skull base appear to have a biological behavior different from simple benign angiomyolipomas reported elsewhere in the body. PEComa may be more intermediate or malignant in clinical behavior.
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    ABSTRACT: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms are a group of rare tumours reported in various organs under a variety of designations. Such tumours are of interest primarily because of the distinctive morphology of their cell population and their immunoreactivity with melanocytic and myoid markers. There is a strong association between perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms and tuberous sclerosis complex. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms very rarely occur in the upper aero-digestive tract. To date only three cases of nasal perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms have been reported in the literature. The present report refers to a 22-year old woman, without any stigmata of tuberous sclerosis complex, with early onset of a polypoid nasal mass with pathological and immunohistochemical features entirely compatible with those of a perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm.
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    ABSTRACT: PEComas are a family of mesenchymal neoplasms that have in common the presence of a unique cell type, the perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC). PECs uniquely exhibit a distinct immunophenotype with expression of both melanocytic, particularly HMB-45, and myogenic markers. Nasal PEComas are exceedingly rare. To date, 14 cases have been described in the literature and with the exception of 6 cases, the rest consistently lack epithelioid cells and HMB-45 expression and are best classified as nasal hamartomas or angioleiomyomas with an adipocytic component. Nasal PEComas may closely resemble malignant melanomas since both entities share many morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and clinical features. The distinction is of paramount importance as melanomas tend to display an aggressive behaviour with associated poor outcome. Herein, we report a case of nasal PEComa in a 19 year girl, focusing on the importance of light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features in accurately establishing the diagnosis.
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