PEComa of the nasal septum.
Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.73). 10/2009; 141(4):543-4. DOI:10.1016/j.otohns.2009.03.009
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ABSTRACT: A monotypic angiomyolipoma of the nasal cavity in a 34-year-old woman is described. Tumor cells were spindled or epithelioid and contained glycogen and diastase-resistant PAS-positive granules. There were few mitoses, and necrosis was absent, indicating a benign tumor. The stroma was markedly vascular, and a few adipocytes were seen in one area. Cells were positive for melanocyte and muscle markers. Electron microscopy revealed abundant dense granules. Although melanin was absent histochemically, it was present using a chemical assay, and the granules may, therefore, be atypical melanosomes. Fine actin filaments, attachment plaques and lamina were present. Initial assessment of the lesion indicated malignant melanoma, but the immunostaining and histologic features indicated monotypic angiomyolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case in the nasal cavity.International Journal of Surgical Pathology 11/2001; 9(4):309-15. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PEComas, occasionally associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex, are defined by the presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that coexpress muscle and melanocytic markers. This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations. Because non-AML/non-LAM PEComas are extremely rare and their natural history and prognostic features undefined, we present our experience with 26 PEComas of soft tissue and the gynecologic tract, the largest series to date. We also performed a detailed review of the literature, with special attention to features predictive of clinical behavior. All PEComas exclusive of AML and LAM were retrieved from our consultation files. Immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin (CK), S-100 protein, smooth muscle actins (SMA), desmin, vimentin, HMB45, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), TFE3, CD117, and CD34 was performed. Clinical follow-up information was obtained. Fisher's exact test was performed. The median patient age was 46 years (range, 15-97 years); there was a marked female predominance (22 females, 4 males). Sites of involvement included the omentum or mesentery (6 cases), uterus (4 cases), pelvic soft tissues (3 cases), abdominal wall (2 cases), uterine cervix (2 cases), and vagina, retroperitoneum, thigh, falciform ligament, scalp, broad ligament, forearm, shoulder, and neck (1 case each). The tumors ranged from 1.6 to 29 cm in size (median, 7.8 cm). Tumors were epithelioid (N = 9), spindled (N = 7), or mixed (N = 10). Multinucleated giant cells were present in 18 cases. High nuclear grade was noted in 10 cases, high cellularity in 7 cases, necrosis in 8 cases, and vascular invasion in 3 cases. Mitotic activity was 0 to 50 mitotic figures (MF)/50 high power fields (HPF) (median, 0 MF/50 HPF) with atypical MF in 6 cases. IHC results were: SMA (20/25), desmin (8/22), HMB45 (22/24), Melan-A (13/18), MITF (9/18), S-100 protein (8/24), CK (3/23), vimentin (12/14), TFE3 (5/17), c-kit (1/20), and CD34 (0/7). Clinical follow-up (24 of 26 patients, 92%; median, 30 months; range, 10-84 months) showed 3 local recurrences and 5 distant metastases. At last available clinical follow-up, 2 patients (8%) were dead of disease, 4 patients (17%) were alive with metastatic or unresectable local disease, and 18 patients (75%) were alive with no evidence of disease. No patient in our series had a history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Recurrence and/or metastasis was strongly associated tumor size > median size (8 cm), mitotic activity greater than 1/50 HPF, and necrosis. We conclude that PEComas of soft tissue and gynecologic origin may be classified as "benign," "of uncertain malignant potential," or "malignant." Small PEComas without any worrisome histologic features are most likely benign. PEComas with nuclear pleomorphism alone ("symplastic") and large PEComas without other worrisome features have uncertain malignant potential. PEComas with two or more worrisome histologic features should be considered malignant. Occasional PEComas express unusual markers, such as S-100 protein, desmin, and rarely CK. The role of TFE3 in PEComas should be further studied.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 12/2005; 29(12):1558-75. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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