Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States.
ABSTRACT Surveillance for Cryptosporidium in the United States indicates that the reported incidence of infection has increased dramatically since 2004. The reasons for this increase are unclear but might be caused by an actual increase in incidence, improved surveillance, improved awareness about cryptosporidiosis, and/or increases in testing practices resulting from the licensing of the first-ever treatment for cryptosporidiosis. While regional differences remain, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis appears to be increasing across the United States. Onset of illness is most common during the summer, particularly among younger children. Cryptosporidiosis case reporting also influences outbreak detection and reporting; the recent rise in cases coincides with an increase in the number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, particularly in treated recreational water venues. Risk factors include ingesting contaminated recreational or drinking water, exposure to infected animals, having close contacts with cryptosporidiosis, travel to disease-endemic areas, and ingestion of contaminated food. Advances in molecular characterization of clinical specimens have improved our understanding of the changing epidemiology and risk factors. Prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis requires continued efforts to interrupt the transmission of Cryptosporidium through water, food, and contact with infected persons or animals. Of particular importance is continued improvement and monitoring of drinking water treatment and advances in the design, operation, and management of recreational water venues coupled with behavioral changes among the swimming public.
SourceAvailable from: Harith S. Al-Warid[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with malignant disease are frequently affected by parasitic diseases such as cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium is a parasite causing self-limited diarrhea and enteritis in healthy individuals. The prevalence and intensity of Cryptosporidium infection was studied in two groups including 30 subjects with lymphohematopoietic malignancy undergo chemotherapy and 146 non malignant subjects. Stool specimen was obtained from each case. The specimens were concentrated by the formalin-ether method and smear was prepared from each. The smears were stained by modified Ziehl-Neelsen method and were observed under a light microscope. 23 (76.66%) malignant and 22(15.06%) non-malignant patients were positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The results showed a statistically significant difference between malignant and non- malignant groups (P<0.05). The results also showed that the intensity of Cryptosporidium infection in malignant patients was significant(P<0.05) much (higher than non-malignant patients. and this could be due to immunosuppressive therapy in these malignant patients.Advances in Bioresearch 01/2012; 3(3):38-41. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A study was performed using a subset of Ontario laboratory parasitology data, with three objectives: to describe parasitic infections in Ontario; to identify risk factors for acquiring a parasitic infection using routinely collected information; and to use this information to assess current protocols for parasite testing in laboratories and, in turn, to propose alternatives to optimize the allocation of laboratory resources. All parasitology records from January 4, 2010 to September 14, 2010 were reviewed descriptively and risk factor analyses were performed using information collected from requisitions. These results were used to develop preliminary alternative protocols, which considered high-throughput screening tests and inclusion/exclusion criteria for ova and parasite testing; these were then retrospectively analyzed with the dataset to determine appropriateness. Of the 29,260 records analyzed, 10% were multiple samples from single patients submitted on the same day, of which 98% had the same result. Three percent of all parasite tests were positive, with the most prevalent parasites being (in ascending order) Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar. Age and sex were found to be weak risk factors, while rural living was found to be a moderate risk factor for D fragilis, G lamblia and Cryptosporidium infections. The strongest risk factor was travel history, especially for nonendemic parasites. The retrospective analysis of six alternative protocols identified four that may be more efficient than current procedures. The present study demonstrated that current protocols may be redundant and can be optimized to target prevalent parasites and populations with high risk factors.The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 11/2014; 25(6):305-10. · 0.49 Impact Factor