Article

Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

Departmentof Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania Health System, 3535 Market Street, Room 2007, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Current Psychiatry Reports (Impact Factor: 3.05). 10/2009; 11(5):341-2. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-009-0064-3
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a prodrug stimulant, is indicated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 6-12 years of age and in adults. In short-term studies, once-daily LDX provided efficacy throughout the day. This study presented here was conducted to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of LDX in 6- to 12-year-olds with ADHD. This open-label, multicenter, single-arm study enrolled children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria for ADHD. Following 1-week screening and washout periods, subjects were titrated to LDX 30, 50, or 70 mg/day over 4 weeks and placed on maintenance treatment for 11 months. The ADHD Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale measured effectiveness. Of 272 subjects receiving LDX, 147 completed the study. Most adverse events were mild to moderate and occurred during the first 4 weeks. There were no clinically meaningful changes in blood pressure or electrocardiographic parameters. From baseline to endpoint, mean ADHD Rating Scale scores improved by 27.2 points (P<.0001). Improvements occurred during each of the first 4 weeks, and were maintained throughout. Based on Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores, >80% of subjects at endpoint and >95% of completers at 12 months were rated "improved." Long-term 30, 50, and 70 mg/day LDX was generally well tolerated and effective in children with ADHD.
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    ABSTRACT: Lisdexamfetamme dimesylate (LDX) is a therapeutically inactive amphetamine prodrug. It was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day, with a reduced potential for abuse, overdose toxicity, and drug tampering. Following ingestion, the pharmacologically active d-amphetamine molecule is gradually released by rate-limited hydrolysis. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and tolerability of LDX in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated in the community, and to characterize the duration of action of LDX compared with placebo. This Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose, parallel-group study was conducted at 40 centers across the United States. Male and female children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD were randomly assigned to receive LDX 30, 50, or 70 mg with forced-dose titration, or placebo, PO QD for 4 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale Version IV (ADHD-RS-IV), the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPR'), and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Of the 290 randomized patients (201 boys, 89 girls; mean [SD] age, 9 [1.8] years), 230 completed the trial (LDX 30 mg, n=56; LDX 50 mg, n=60; LDX 70 mg, n=60; and placebo, n=54). The most common reasons for study discontinuation (n=60) were lack of efficacy (LDX 30 mg, 1%; LDX 50 mg, 0%; LDX 70 mg, 1 %; and placebo, 17%) and adverse events (AEs) (LDX 30 mg, 9%; LDX 50 mg, 5%; LDX 70 mg, 14%; and placebo, 1%). Significant improvements in ADHD-RS-IV scores were seen with all doses of LDX compared with placebo (all, P<0.001), and in CPRS scores with all LDX doses versus placebo throughout the day (all, P<0.001 for all comparisons). Efficacy was observed by the first week of treatment, and improvements were observed throughout the day up to approximately 6 PM. The most frequently reported AEs among patients receiving LDX were typical of amphetamine products: decreased appetite (39% with active treatment vs 4% with placebo), insomnia (19% vs 3%), upper abdominal pain (12% vs 6%), headache (12% vs 10%), irritability (10% vs 0%), vomiting (9% vs 4%), weight decrease (9% vs 1%), and nausea (6% vs 3%); most were mild to moderate and occurred in the first week. In this population of children with ADHD, treatment once daily with the prodrug LDX at doses of 30 to 70 mg appeared to be effective and had a tolerability profile similar to those of currently marketed extended-release stimulants.
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