SOD and CAT cDNA cloning, and expression pattern of detoxification genes in the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus transplanted into the Moselle river.
ABSTRACT The cDNA sequences encoding manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) were isolated in the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers. Quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to evaluate the mRNA expression patterns of SOD, CAT, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), pi class glutathione S-transferase (pi-GST) and metallothionein (MT), in the digestive gland of Unio tumidus transplanted from a control site to four stations in the Moselle River (M1-M4), for periods of 8 and 21 days. These sites were chosen upstream and downstream of populated areas. Chemical analysis performed on sediments from the Moselle river sites did not show high levels of pollutants. Decrease of SOD, CAT, Se-GPx and MT mRNA levels were observed at M3 site after a 21-day exposure compared to control site. These results suggest inefficiency of antioxidant systems affected by cytotoxic mechanisms and confirm an environmental perturbation. Organisms transplanted at M4 site showed a strong increase of biomarkers transcription levels after 21 days of exposure. These inductions could correspond to an adaptive response to an altered environment. Our results showed that biological approaches using multibiomarkers appear as essential tools complementary to measurement of contaminants, to detect environmental degradations.
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ABSTRACT: Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) involves two main pathways: one-electron oxidation and monooxygenation. One-electron oxidation produces PAH radical cations, which can react with cellular nucleophiles. Results from biochemical and biological experiments indicate that only PAH with ionization potentials below ca. 7.35 eV can be metabolically activated by one-electron oxidation. In addition, the radical cations of carcinogenic PAH must have relatively high charge localization to react effectively with macromolecules in target cells. Metabolic formation of PAH quinones proceeds through radical cation intermediates. Binding of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to mouse skin DNA occurs predominantly at C-6, the position of highest charge localization in the BP radical cation, and binding of 6-methyl BP to DNA in mouse skin yields a major adduct with the 6-methyl group bound to the 2-amino group of deoxyguanosine. Studies of carcinogenicity by direct application of PAH to rat mammary gland indicate that only PAH with ionization potentials low enough for activation by one-electron oxidation produce tumors in this target tissue. These constitute some of the results which provide evidence for the involvement of one-electron oxidation in PAH carcinogenesis.Environmental Health Perspectives 01/1986; 64:69-84. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to study immunomodulation, controlled laboratory experiments were carried out with roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) or spent bleach liquor (SBL) from two pulp and paper mills using elementary chlorine and chlorine dioxide for bleaching. The total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) and the number of specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were determined by ELISPOT assay. Exposure to BKME resulted in decreased numbers of ISC in the spleen. To study the capability of response against foreign antigens the fish were immunized with bovine gamma-globulin. Exposure to BKME or SBL reduced antigen-specific ASC response in fish. Moreover, the suppression of ASC response did not require exposure prior to immunization. Depuration of fish in clean water reveals that the immunosuppression caused by BKME is reversible. The ASC response in the BKME-pretreated fish returned to the same or even a higher level compared to untreated immunized fish and, in addition, the number of ISC increased greatly. The results of this study verify an earlier finding on poor antibody response due to exposure in a lake contaminated with BKME. Exposure to SBL alone suppresses antibody-mediated immunity, suggesting that compounds formed in bleaching are at least partly responsible for immunotoxic effects.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/1998; 38(3):266-71. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of mercury exposure to total Metallothionein (MT) response and bioaccumulation under control and acute mercury exposure were investigated in scats (Scatophagus argus). Scats were exposed to different mercury concentrations (10, 20 and 30 microg Hg L(-1)) for 24, 48 and 72 h. Total MT levels were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Mercury contents were determined through cold Vapour atomic Absorption spectrometry. Induction of MT during exposure was tissue specific, displaying different response pattern in gill and liver. Mercury accumulated much stronger in liver than gill and the latter also showed lower MT level. MT biosynthesis in liver showed a significant increase after exposure to different mercury concentration during different times. This increase was significantly correlated with mercury bioaccumulation. In contrast, presence of different mercury concentration during different times did not significantly modify total MT except for 72 h exposure at 30 microg L(-1) in gills. The results suggest that this form of MT existing in S. argus was Hg-inducible and could be extended the as a biomarker of mercury pollution in ecosystems.Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10/2008; 11(18):2269-73.