A Relationship between the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
ABSTRACT The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a marker for inflammation, and it has been identified as a risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the plasma ESR level and nocturnal oxygen desaturation or other polysomnographic variables and to examine the role of obesity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
This retrospective study included 72 patients with a diagnosis of OSAS who underwent overnight polysomnography and routine blood tests between July and December of 2005. We compared the plasma ESR level with the sum of all the polysomnographic variables and divided the patient group into obese and non-obese patients.
The mean ESR level was 8.45 mm/hr. There was a significant difference in the ESR level between genders (P<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the percentage of time spent at a SpO(2) below 90% and the ESR level in the obese group (BMI >/=25, N=43, P=0.012). In addition, the ESR levels had a positive correlation with age in the obese group (P=0.002). However, there was no significant correlation with the percentage of time spent at a SpO(2) below 90% in the whole group of patients and in the non-obese group (BMI <25, N=29). The ESR level showed no correlation with the other polysomnographic variables.
The duration of deoxygenation in obese patients with OSAS may be associated with the ESR level which is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for adults in the United States. One risk factor for CVD is metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, proinflammatory state, and prothrombotic state. A lesser-understood risk factor is obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This article explores the physiological consequences of the interaction between OSAHS and metabolic syndrome on the cardiovascular system. Data sources: Search terms "metabolic syndrome,"obstructive sleep apnea,"cardiovascular disease,"diabetes,"obesity," and "atherosclerosis," were used. Studies involving children were excluded. Conclusions: Both metabolic syndrome and OSAHS have significant impact on the cardiovascular system; however, when both conditions are present together, the impact is synergistic and CVD risk is multiplied. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces the global burden of CVD risk. Implications for practice: Providers need to screen patients routinely for both metabolic syndrome and OSAHS. Treatment should include CPAP, weight reduction, oral appliances, and/or upper airway surgeries with concurrent management for metabolic syndrome. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms of action by which OSAHA and metabolic syndrome contribute to CVD. This understanding can lead to more stringent guidelines on the management of metabolic syndrome and OSAHS.Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 12/2012; 24(12):695-703. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00771.x · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) affects sleep architecture and quality in East Asian children, and also to assess the effects of body position during sleep on respiratory disturbance during sleep. We enrolled 50 consecutive East Asian children with habitual snoring between 2007 and 2009. Nineteen children had OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI≥5; OSAS group) and 31 children were simple snorers (control group). They underwent polysomnography and physical examination of their nasal and oral cavities with a roentgenogram of the nasopharynx. Sleep architecture and other polysomnographic variables were compared between the OSAS and control groups. The effect of body position during sleep on respiratory disturbance was examined, and also in relation to obesity and adeno-tonsillar size. There was a decrease in total sleep time and in sleep efficiency, as well as increased arousal and heart rate (P<0.05) in the OSAS group. Sub-analysis of AHI according to sleep posture showed that AHI is higher when the patient is in the supine position than in the non-supine position (P=0.032). The presence of OSAS and kissing tonsils were contributing factors to the positional difference in AHI (P<0.05). Obesity and adenoid hypertrophy did not affect the positional difference of AHI. OSAS may have a greater influence on the sleep architecture of East Asian children, and East Asian children may have a higher AHI when sleeping in the supine position. Tonsillar hypertrophy and the presence of OSAS are possible contributing factors for positional difference of AHI in East Asian children.Auris, nasus, larynx 04/2011; 38(2):228-32. DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2010.07.005 · 1.00 Impact Factor