Risk of autism and increasing maternal and paternal age in a large north American population.
ABSTRACT Previous studies are inconsistent regarding whether there are independent effects of maternal and paternal age on the risk of autism. Different biologic mechanisms are suggested by maternal and paternal age effects. The study population included all California singletons born in 1989-2002 (n = 7,550,026). Children with autism (n = 23,311) were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and compared with the remainder of the study population, with parental ages and covariates obtained from birth certificates. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the risk of autism associated with increasing maternal and paternal age. In adjusted models that included age of the other parent and demographic covariates, a 10-year increase in maternal age was associated with a 38% increase in the odds ratio for autism (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.44), and a 10-year increase in paternal age was associated with a 22% increase (odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.26). Maternal and paternal age effects were seen in subgroups defined by race/ethnicity and other covariates and were of greater magnitude among first-born compared with later-born children. Further studies are needed to help clarify the biologic mechanisms involved in the independent association of autism risk with increasing maternal and paternal age.
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ABSTRACT: The interest in parental aging and reproductive outcomes has increased signiﬁcantly with the change in societal structure and age at family planning. Although the effect of advanced maternal age on obstetric and neonatal morbidities is well established, the effect of advanced paternal age needs additional exploration in association with adverse reproductive outcomes. Some studies suggest that the sperm of fathers with advanced age harbor germline mutations that inﬂuence reproductive, neonatal, and adult health outcomes of the progeny. Data on the contribution of advanced paternal age to spontaneous abortion, postconceptual age, birth weight, and neonatal mortality depends on the population and the design of the study. There is stronger evidence that advanced paternal age contributes signiﬁcantly to congenital malformations and the health of the offspring in adolescence and adulthood with an increased risk of cancer, neurologic disorders, and cardiac diseases. In this review, we summarize the results of different studies that address the effect of advanced paternal age on reproductive outcomes and the origin of illnesses in adulthood. We also discuss possible mechanisms and theories behind these potential associations.NeoReviews 02/2015;
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. This study aimed to analyze trends in ASD diagnosis and intervention in 20 years of data from the Beijing Stars and Rain Education Institute for Autism (SR), the first autism intervention center in mainland China, and from a recent survey of members of the Heart Alliance, an industry association of autism intervention centers in China. We analyzed the registration data at the SR from 1993 to 2012 for a total of 2,222 children who had a parent-reported diagnosis of ASD and 612 of 'autistic tendencies'. Most of the children who were the primary focus of our analyses were age six and under. We also analyzed results of a survey we conducted in 2013 of 100 member centers of the Heart Alliance. Generalized Estimating Equations, multiple linear regression and the Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. Statistically significant findings are reported here. The number of hospitals where SR children received their diagnosis increased from several in the early 1990s to 276 at present. The proportion of 'autistic tendencies' diagnosis increased 2.04-fold from 1998 to 2012 and was higher for children diagnosed at a younger age. The mean age at first diagnosis of ASD or 'autistic tendencies' decreased by 0.27 years every decade. A higher level of parental education was statistically significantly associated with an earlier diagnosis of the child. The mean parental age at childbirth increased by about 1.48 years per decade, and the mean maternal age was 1.40 and 2.10 years higher than that in the national population censuses of 2000 and 2010, respectively. At the time of the survey 3,957 children with ASD were being trained at the 100 autism intervention centers. Ninety-seven of these centers opened after the year 2000. Economically underdeveloped regions are still underserved. This study revealed encouraging trends and remaining challenges in ASD diagnosis and intervention among children at the SR over the past 20 years and the 100 autism intervention centers in China at present.Molecular Autism 01/2014; 5:52. DOI:10.1186/2040-2392-5-52 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported an increased risk of autism among second-born children conceived <12 versus >36 months after the birth of a sibling. Confirmation of this finding would point to inter-pregnancy interval (IPI) as a potentially modifiable risk factor for autism. This study evaluated the relationship between IPI and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in a Wisconsin birth cohort of 31,467 second-born children, of whom 160 resided in the study area and were found to have ASD at age 8 years. In adjusted analyses, both short (<12) and long (>84 month) IPIs were associated with a two-fold risk of ASD relative to IPIs of 24-47 months (p < 0.05). The long IPI association was partially confounded by history of previous pregnancy loss.