Large rearrangements detected by MLPA, point mutations, and survey of the frequency of mutations within the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes in a cohort of 172 cystinuric Italian patients.
ABSTRACT Cystinuria is a rare inherited disorder characterized by defective renal reabsorption of cystine and the dibasic amino acids. SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 have been identified as responsible genes. The large majority of the more than 200 mutations so far identified in the two genes are point mutations, while only few alleles carrying gross genomic alterations have been reported. We screened 39 cystinuric patients for large rearrangements, by two home-made multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays. MLPA analysis led to the identification of 6 different alleles in SLC3A1 and 2 in SLC7A9 accounting for a total of 25 copy number changes, 11 in SLC3A1 and 14 in SLC7A9. Three large rearrangements in SLC3A1, deletion of exons 2-4 (E2_E4del), deletion of exons 5-6 (E5_E6del) and duplication of exons 8-9 (E8_E9dup) are novel. A complete SLC7A9 gene deletion was found in three patients. In addition, we report the identification of three novel point mutations in SLC7A9 (p.G105E, p.R250K, c.1416_1417insAC), the frequency and the occurrence of cystinuria mutations in a cohort of 172 Italian patients. In conclusion, we developed a reliable and robust MLPA analytic method for SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes that represents an optimal complement to DNA sequence analysis in patients with cystinuria, enabling the screening for deletions and duplications.
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ABSTRACT: Cystinuria (OMIM 220100) is a common recessive disorder of renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids that results in nephrolithiasis of cystine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which encodes rBAT, cause Type I cystinuria, and mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes a putative subunit of rBAT (b(o,+)AT), cause non-Type I cystinuria. Here we describe the genomic structure of SLC7A9 (13 exons) and 28 new mutations in this gene that, together with the seven previously reported, explain 79% of the alleles in 61 non-Type I cystinuria patients. These data demonstrate that SLC7A9 is the main non-Type I cystinuria gene. Mutations G105R, V170M, A182T and R333W are the most frequent SLC7A9 missense mutations found. Among heterozygotes carrying these mutations, A182T heterozygotes showed the lowest urinary excretion values of cystine and dibasic amino acids. Functional analysis of mutation A182T after co-expression with rBAT in HeLa cells revealed significant residual transport activity. In contrast, mutations G105R, V170M and R333W are associated to a complete or almost complete loss of transport activity, leading to a more severe urinary phenotype in heterozygotes. SLC7A9 mutations located in the putative transmembrane domains of b(o,+)AT and affecting conserved amino acid residues with a small side chain generate a severe phenotype, while mutations in non-conserved residues give rise to a mild phenotype. These data provide the first genotype-phenotype correlation in non-Type I cystinuria, and show that a mild urinary phenotype in heterozygotes may associate with mutations with significant residual transport activity.Human Molecular Genetics 03/2001; 10(4):305-16. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cystinuria, a hereditary disorder of cystine and dibasic amino acid reabsorption, has been classified into three subtypes on the basis of urinary excretion in obligate heterozygous parents. Thirteen cystinuric patients, identified primarily through the Quebec newborn urinary screening program, were investigated by phenotypic classification and by mutational analysis of the D2H (rBAT) gene. Mutations were identified on 7 of 25 alleles; all of these 7 mutant alleles were associated with Type I cystinuria. Four of the mutations (a large deletion, a 5'splice site mutation, a 2 bp deletion, and a nonsense mutation) have not been previously reported. These findings suggest that abnormalities in the D2H gene may account for only one subtype (Type I) of cystinuria, and that this subtype can be caused by a wide variety of population-specific mutations.Kidney International 06/1996; 49(5):1401-6. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent developments in the genetics and physiology of cystinuria do not support the traditional classification, which is based on the excretion of cystine and dibasic amino acids in obligate heterozygotes. Mutations of only two genes (SLC3A1 and SLC7A9), identified by the International Cystinuria Consortium (ICC), have been found to be responsible for all three types of the disease. The ICC set up a multinational database and collected genetic and clinical data from 224 patients affected by cystinuria, 125 with full genotype definition. Amino acid urinary excretion patterns of 189 heterozygotes with genetic definition and of 83 healthy controls were also included. All SLC3A1 carriers and 14% of SLC7A9 carriers showed a normal amino acid urinary pattern (i.e., type I phenotype). The rest of the SLC7A9 carriers showed phenotype non-I (type III, 80.5%; type II, 5.5%). This makes the traditional classification imprecise. A new classification is needed: type A, due to two mutations of SLC3A1 (rBAT) on chromosome 2 (45.2% in our database); type B, due to two mutations of SLC7A9 on chromosome 19 (53.2% in this series); and a possible third type, AB (1.6%), with one mutation on each of the above-mentioned genes. Clinical data show that cystinuria is more severe in males than in females. The two types of cystinuria (A and B) had a similar outcome in this retrospective study, but the effect of the treatment could not be analyzed. Stone events do not correlate with amino acid urinary excretion. Renal function was clearly impaired in 17% of the patients.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2002; 13(10):2547-53. · 8.99 Impact Factor